Etiket: İngilizce

Biography Of Victor Hugo

The French author Victor Hugo, is regarded by many as the supreme poet of French romanticism (a style in the 1800s that emphasized a free form of writing and expressed strong emotions, experiences of common people, and imaginative expressions and passion). He is known for producing large amounts of work, the ability to easily write poetry or novels, and his incredible vision.

Hugo’s early years
Victor Marie Vicomte Hugo was born in Besançon, France, on February 26, 1802, to Joseph Leopold Sigisbert Hugo and Sophie Trebuchet. He and his two older brothers, Abel and Eugène, lived with their mother in Paris, France, while their father, a general and the governor of the Italian province of Avellino, lived in Italy. Hugo’s mother had a special friendship with General Victor Fanneau Lahorie, who became an enemy of the French government. She let him hide in their house, and it was during this time he became a teacher for the Hugo boys. The boys frequently traveled to see their father and these trips caused breaks in their education. As a young boy, Hugo showed an interest in writing poetry. When he was twelve years old, Victor and his brothers were sent to school at the Pension Cordier. There they studied the sciences and spent their leisure time writing poetry and plays. When Victor was fifteen, he won the poetry contest held by the Académie Française and the next year placed first in the Académie des Jeux Floraux’s contest. Victor’s reputation as a poet developed early in his life, and he received a royal salary in 1822.

In 1822 Hugo married his childhood sweetheart, Adèle Foucher, one and a half years after the death of his mother, who had opposed their marriage. The couple later had four children. Their apartment in Paris became the meeting place for the ambitious writers of the Romantic Movement. In 1822 Hugo also published his first signed book, Odes et poésies diverses.

Development of romanticism
In 1824 a few of Hugo’s friends began a group called Muse française. All were young writers who were beginning to break with neoclassicism (a style of writing that was based on the styles of ancient Greece and Rome in which logical, clear, and well-ordered writing was valued). After his visit to Alphonse de Lamartine (1790–1869) and his discovery of German balladry (putting stories to music in an artistic way), in 1826 Hugo published Odes et ballades, in which his rejection of neoclassicism was clear.

The years 1826 and 1827 were successful ones for the Cénacle, the name given to a group of young romantics who were supporters of Hugo and his poetry. They called him the “prince of poets.” Hugo stopped writing flattering odes (poems that express positive emotions and feelings about people or events) to King Charles X (1757–1836) and instead began praising Napoleon I (1769–1821). With the support and advice of friends, Hugo created the attitude of romanticism. This belief was expressed in the preface to his unproduced play, Cromwell, published in October 1827. He felt that poetry should follow nature, mixing the beautiful and the good with the ugly and the displeasing. The Bible, Homer (c. ninth century B.C.E. ), and William Shakespeare (1564–1616) were the inspirational sources of his new literature.

Convinced that romanticism must prove itself in the theater, Hugo followed Cromwell with a number of other plays. On February 25, 1830, the famous “battle of Hernani” took place, with Hugo’s supporters out shouting the neoclassicists and antiromantics (people who opposed the romantic movement) who had come to show their disapproval for the play. Hernani was performed forty-five times (an unusual success for those days).

In 1831 Hugo published his novel Notre Dame de Paris, the work for which he is best known in the United States. In this he wished to convey the true spirit of the late Middle Ages through his creation of the Cathedral of Notre Dame and his characters: Frollo the archdeacon, Quasimodo the hunchback, and Esmeralda the gypsy girl. Although some readers were shocked that Frollo (who had taken holy orders) should fall in love with Esmeralda, the tale was a huge success.

Melancholy period
Also in 1831 Hugo published one of his most beautiful collections of poetry, Les Feuilles d’automne. Once again, Hugo wrote about private topics. This volume expressed the sadness he felt about events in his past as the poet approached his important thirtieth birthday. It was not only the fact that he was aging that made Hugo depressed; his wife, tired of bearing children and frustrated by the poet’s immense selfishness, turned for comfort to the poet’s friend, the critic Sainte-Beuve. The sadness of this double betrayal is felt in Feuilles d’automne.

Due to Hugo’s loneliness from his wife’s rejection, he fell in love with the young actress and prostitute (a person who receives money for performing sexual acts) Juliette Drouet. He took it upon himself to save her. He paid her debts and forced her to live in poverty, with her whole life focused entirely upon him. From this time on she lived solely for the poet and spent her time writing him letters, of which many thousands are in existence.

With the arrival of the July Monarchy, Hugo became wealthy and famous, and for fifteen years he was the official poet of France. During this period a large variety of new works appeared, including three plays: Le Roi s’amuse (1832), Lucrézia Borgia (1833), and the triumph Ruy Blas (1838).

In 1835 came Chants du crépuscule, which included many love lyrics (poems telling of emotion or love) to Juliette. In 1837 came Les Voix intérieures, a memorial of his father, who had been a Napoleonic general. Les Rayons et les ombres (1840) was another of his written works that was a statement of his personal emotions.

Political involvement
Hugo was now seized with a new ambition: he wished to become a statesman. When Louis Philippe was defeated in the Revolution of 1848, he allowed himself to be elected a deputy to the Assembly.

When Louis Napoleon began to achieve fame, Hugo supported him. But his enthusiasm for the new president was short-lived. He made a stirring plea for freedom of the press. At last, in 1849, he broke with Napoleon III (1808–1873).

Victor Hugo.

Louis Napoleon seized power on the night of December 2, 1850, and declared himself emperor. Hugo called for the people to fight back, and many were killed in this process. Hugo’s involvement in the events put his life in danger. Juliette saved the poet, found him shelter, and organized his escape to Brussels, Belgium. From there he went to the British Channel islands of Jersey and Guernsey.

In November 1853 Hugo’s anti-Napoleonic volume, Les Châtiments, was published in Belgium. Though banned in France, the books were smuggled in and widely distributed. The final edition of Les Châtiments, with numerous additions, was published in 1870, when Hugo returned to Paris after the fall of Napoleon III.

Hugo’s mysticism
During Hugo’s long absence from France, he explored the dark side of his personality. There were many séances (meetings of people attempting to contact the dead) in his home. He believed that he was communicating with famous spirits. The “visit” that touched him most was that of his favorite daughter, Léopoldine, who had tragically drowned in the Seine with her young husband in 1843.

Indeed, Hugo’s family was doomed with many tragedies. While his life in England energized his poetry, his wife and children became depressed. They longed for their friends and the familiar surroundings of Paris. His daughter, Adèle, withdrew into a fantasy world until at last she ran away from home. Hugo continued his experiments with the supernatural until stopped by the fragile mental state of his son, Charles. Hugo’s wife left him to live in Brussels, where she died in 1868. Only Juliette remained loyal during the seventeen years the poet spent in England.

In 1856 Hugo published Les Contemplations, a work described as the progression of life from infancy to its end, complete with all of the emotional experiences that happen to a person during this process. Many of these poems predict Hugo’s next major work La Légende des siècles (1859), conceived as part of an enormous uncompleted work whose mission was to “express humanity.” Hugo dreamed of an all-inclusive vast poem. It would show that man and his soul were basically good and that the human spirit would come out and away from its concern with material things.

In 1862 Hugo published Les Misérables, a major novel, the work of many years. His guiding interest was a social and humanitarian concern for the disadvantaged. The book was not just an adventure story but a love story and a mystery as well. It solidified Hugo’s concern for people who were treated unfairly in society and once again amazed the reading public with the range of his literary powers.

When Victor Hugo died in Paris on May 22, 1885, he was a time-honored man, crowned with worldwide glory, still enthusiastic and emotionally devoted to the last.


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Osmanlı Padişahı Osman Gazi İngilizce Hayatı

Osman GaziOsman I (1258-1324).

The chronology of Osman’s career lacks certainty at every point, but the generally accepted tradition fixes his birth in 1258 at Söğüt (northwest of Eskişehir) where his father Ertoğrul was the leader of a band of frontier warriors. On the latter’s death, he became chieftain of the band and by the turn of the century he held the region including the cities of Bilecik, Inegöl, Yarhisar, and Yenişehir, the last of which became his center of operations against İznik and Bursa. The intent was to iso-late both these important Greek cities from assistance from Constantinople. In 1314 Bursa was placed under siege; it finally capitulated in 1326, the year of Osman’s death, and the city became the first capital of the infant empire. By this time Ottoman possessions extended as far east as Bolu, to Kandıra near the Black Sea in the north, and to İnegöl in the south; but the direction of political opportunity clearly lay to the west.


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Osmanlı Padişahı Orhan Gazi İngilizce Hayatı

Orhan GaziOrhan (Orkhan) 1 (1281-1362)

Osman was succeeded by his eldest son, Orhan, the first significant event of whose reign was the capture of İznik in 1330. Nicomedia (now İzmit) fell in 1337 after a siege of six years, and once this last enclave of Greek power in western Anatolia was in their hands, Europe beckoned irresistibly to the seemingly invincible Ottomans.

Their first introduction to Europe came by invitation rather than assault: in 1346 the pretender to the Byzantine throne, John Cantacuzenos (Cantacuzene), gave his daughter Theodora in marriage to Orhan and in return received the help of Turkish troops in his struggle for the throne with John V Palaeologus. In 1353 the Ottomans were rewarded by the grant of a permanent base in the Gallipoli peninsula. It was from here that their expansion into the Balkans was to originate, and even before Cantacuzenos was forced to renounce the throne to his rival John V in 1355 they were already extended along the Marmara coast as far as Tekirdağ.

When Orhan died, not only did the Ottomans hold this firm bridgehead in Europe, but in Anatolia their territories had been pushed as far east as Ankara. It is in the reign of Orhan that we can notice the first efforts toward an organized state, patterned no doubt on Seljuk precedents: silver coins were struck in his name in Bursa as early as 1326-1327; the council of state, or divan, was instituted; civil, as distinct from military, affairs were entrusted to an individual from the learned classes, who was given the title of vezir, while in each important city a religious judge, or kadi, was appointed. But the Ottomans were still no more than first among equals in the sight of the other tribal leaders. It was probably to assure an advantage over the other tribes as well as to give some organization to the warriors that a standing army of foot (yaya) and mounted soldiers was formed; this was to be the precursor of the renowned Janissary (Janizary) Corps.


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1. Murat (Murat Hüdavendigar) İngilizce Hayatı

Murat Hüdavendigar1. Murat (Murat Hüdavendigar); (1328 -1389)

Known as Hudavendigâr or Hünkâr, Murad succeeded his father but not without opposition from his three brothers, whose liquidation in 1363 is the first instance of the precautionary execution of relatives that was to become the normal practice at each accession. In both Anatolia and Europe advantage was taken of these dynastic disturbances by rival beyliks and by the Byzantines for the purpose of regaining some of the territories they had lost to the Ottomans. But their efforts were fruitless, and before the year was out Murad dominated the entire eastern bank of the Maritsa and had taken the great cities of Edirne (Adrianopolis) and Filibe. Byzantium, now virtually isolated, was obliged to give recognition to all these conquests and even to agree to a military alliance with the Ottomans for operations in Anatolia. The chronology of the campaigns in southeastern Europe (hence-forth to be known as Rumili or Rumelia, the name given by the Turks to the area including Albania, Macedonia, and Thrace), as indeed the chronology of most events in early Ottoman history, is vague and confused, and we know little about the alliance among the Serbians, Bulgarians, Hungarians, Walachians, and Bosnians negotiated by Pope Urban V to meet the growing menace. The alliance was defeated in the field at a battle on the banks of the Maritsa near Edirne (1365), and the Ottomans were hence-forth rarely to meet more than local opposition as they spread westward through Serbian Macedonia to the Vardar River and northward to the foothills of the Balkan Mountains. The capital was moved from Bursa to Edirne, indicating that any sense of insecurity in this foreign, Christian land that may have been previously felt had now been overcome. It is also possible that Murad was forced into this move, as he was into the creation of a standing army of non-Turkish Janissaries (Turkish Yeniçeri, “new army”), in order to counter the growing power of his own generals, who had been operating with heady success in almost total independence of him.

But Anatolia also offered prizes too tempting to be neglected. A dispute över the succession in a neighboring tribe that controlled the region north of Ankara up to the Black Sea permitted Murad to intervene in 1383-1384 on behalf of one of the pretenders. He ultimately reduced him to vassalage, having secured his loyalty by a marriage alliance. Another such alliance between Murad’s son Bayezid and the daughter of a neighboring Turkish ruler had already in 1381 brought the territories of Kütahya into the realm as the bride’s dowry; and in the following year the lands to the south of this acquisition were purchased from the Hamidoğlu. The frontiers of the Ottomans now faced those of the Karamanoğlu, a powerful beylik that had arisen in the southeast of Anatolia. When the inevitable trial of strength came in 1387, at a battle near Konya, it was the Karamanoğlu who were reduced to suing for peace. Ottoman power was now recognized as unchallengeable throughout the former domains of the Seljuks.

In 1388 the Ottomans launched a sudden attack on Bulgaria, at the conclusion of which the entire country was reduced to a province with its former king as a mere governor, and the Turkish armies were stretched along the Danube in strategic positions. In the summer of 1389 the army under the command of Murad himself, marched aeross Bulgaria and confronted the Balkan allies on the plain of Kosovo. The bloody encounter, legends of which stili live in Serbian folklore, ended in victory for the Ottomans, and with it the South Slavs all but disappear from history as a political entity for nearly flve centuries. Murad himself was assassinated by a Serbian prisoner immediately after the battle had ended.


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Yıldırım Bayezid İngilizce Hayatı

yildirim-beyazit1. Bayezid (Yıldırım Bayezid)(1360-1403)

Murad’s eldest son, Bayezid, known as Yıldırım (“the Thunderbolt”), was proclaimed leader on the field of battie, where his first command was that his brother Yakub be executed. All resistance to Ottoman might seem to have vanished: while his generals were raiding into Bosnia and aeross the Danube into Hungary and Walachia, he himself fixed a tributary status on Serbia and acted as kingmaker in settling the contention among the Palaeologi for the occupancy of the throne of Byzantium. In 1390, when he erossed to Anatolia in response to rumors of rebellion in his Asiatic possessions, both Serbian and Greek contingents were among his troops. The reported alliance among the aispossessed emirs of the former beyliks, if it had ever existed, dissipated before his advance, and aside from incorporating stili more independent Turkish territories and seizing the Mediterranean port of Antalya from the Tekkeoğlu, he forced the Karamanoğlu into recognizing all lands west of Konya as Ottoman domain. In the northeast of Anatolia, however, a more redoubtable opponent had arisen in the region of Sivas in the person of Kadi Bürhaneddin, whose activities were to keep Bayezid embattled here until the invasion of northeastern Syria and eastern Anatolia by Timur (Tamerlane) in 1394 brought them together in a defensive alliance with Mamluk (Mameluke) Egypt. Fortunately for Bayezid, the threatened invasion of Ottoman territory by the hordes of Çağatay (Chaghatay; the Turkicized Mongols of Central Asia) did not materialize at this moment, for events in Europe were now assuming a very perilous posture.

Constantinople had been under almost constant siege by the Turks since Manuel II assumed the Byzantine throne in 1391, and as relief could only be looked for from the West the emperor, though not his people or his priests, was prepared to capitulate to Latin Christianity as the price of Western aid. Sigismund, king of Hungary, alarmed by the inereasing Ottoman incursions into his territory, was also canvassing the support of the princes of Christendom, and to this Pope Boniface IX responded by proelaiming a new crusade in 1394. Although the way in which the young chivalry of Western Europe rallied to the cause promised hopeful results, their lack of seriousness and their inability to ünite under a single leadership resulted in a disastrous defeat at Nicopolis (modern Niğbolu) on Sept. 25 1396. The ransoms paid for the noblemen who had been taken prisoner brought an unimaginable wealth into the Ottoman treasury, and further conquests in Albania and the Greek mainland created an atmosphere of buoyaney and complacency symbolized by lavish building and extravagant luxuries. In 1397 a successful campaign was led against the Karamanoğlu, by which the great city of Konya, the former Seljuk capital, was acquired, and in the following year Bayezid extended his holdings along the Black Sea by taking Samsun.

The fact that Bayezid devoted so much attention to strengthening his position in war-impoverished Anatolia at a time when Europe was so vulnerable to conquest and exploitation implies an awareness that the most serious challenge to his century-old empire could only come from the East, where the megalomaniac Timur was looking upon the growing prestige of the Ottomans as impudent and defiant. The trial of strength came in 1402 on the plain of Ankara; Timur routed the Ottomans, took Bayezid prisoner, and made a triumphal progress across Anatolia, restoring the dispossessed emirs to their former beyliks and leaving it on his return as divided as it had been after the fail of the Seljuks. Bayezid died in captivity shortly afterward, but two of his sons, ‘İsa and Mehmed, on offering their submission to Timur, were appointed governors of Karası and Amasya respectively. A third son, Süleyman, fled to Rumili, where from his capital in Edirne he struggled to maintain what remained of Ottoman influence among the Turks who had emigrated there.

There can be little doubt that the reason for Bayezid’s defeat is chiefly to be found in the disaffection of the Turkish tribal elements, who were resentful of Ottoman pretensions to royal prerogatives and saw their frequent intermarriages with the daughters of Greek and Slav princes as a Balkanization of the dynasty. Apart rrom the rewards that cooperation could bring in despoiling Europe, there was no basic cohesive principle in the state. It is difficult to say what conceptions of islam were held, but it was certainly not a developed creed among them and probably did not amount to more than a loosely held loyalty that permitted a certain degree of unity when they were face to face with the Christians. Neither was there a general system of organization into which the conquered lands could be fitted, nor a body of law and precedent by which they could be administered. Under Ottoman rule life went on unchanged, except that the regional communities were allowed to develop their individuality to an extent that had been impossible under the Byzantines. The very fact that there existed no finely balanced system that would fail apart if interfered with explains to some extent why Bayezid’s defeat did not, as it otherwise might, mark the passing of an era; the confusion was only but a little more confounded.

The Empire at Its Apogee.—The years 1402-1413 are regarded as an interregnum in Ottoman history, with the sons of Bayezid warring among themselves to restore the integrity of the realm that had been created by their forefathers. Mehmed appears to have escaped from the debacle at Ankara with most of his troops intact, and when Timur acknowledged him as governor of Amasya he was merely avoiding the fatigue of marching against him. Timur’s army was his state and he dared not parcel it out into garrisons for the countless regions he had connuered in his restless career. In Anatolia he hoped to maintain his authority by the familiar stratagem of dividing the lana into mutually hostile beyliks, all too small and weak to be politically effective or militarily dangerous. But Mehmed was not weak, and by 1404 he had driven ‘İsa out of Bursa and the following year found him in possession of most of western Anatolia and his brother slain in battle. Süleyman, who had been supporting ‘İsa, crossed from Rumili with an army, and throughout the four years he remained in Anatolia a state of stalemate existed between him and Mehmed. Another brother, Musa, crossed to Europe in 1409 where he collected an army and began to bring the region under submission to himself. Süleyman died in battle against him in 1410. In 1413 Musa was to meet the same end at the hands of Mehmed, and it is from this year that the reign of the latter as the fifth sultan of the Ottoman dynasty is reckoned to commence.


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Osmanlı Padişahı 1. Mehmet Dönemi (İngilizce)

Çelebi Mehmet1. Mehmet (Çelebi Mehmet);(r.1413-1421)

Ottoman power expanded only slightly during the eight years of Mehmed’s rule. A truce with the Karamanoğlu was arranged in 1414, stabilizing conditions in Anatolia. But the campaigns in Walachia (1416) and Transylvania (1419) had no lasting importance. A dervish revolt in İzmir led by a certain Şeyh (Sheikh) Bedreddin in 1419 was soon suppressed; it deserves mention as the first of many similar popular revolts that were to disturb Anatolia for the next two centuries. When Mehmed died in 1421 the empire had more or less been restored to what it was before Timur’s invasion, but it is wrong to describe him as its second founder, as the older historians frequently did. The fact is that at no time had either Asia or Europe lost continuity of Ottoman rule, nor did there emerge any power of equal strength to challenge this rule or to take advantage of the civil wars for its own benefit. Mehmed merely overcame the centrifugal pull to which all such adventitiously constructed states are subject; that he did it within the context of a civil war in no way heightens his achievement.


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Osmanlı Padişahı 2. Murat Dönemi İngilizce Anlatımı

2. MuratMurad II (1404 1451)

At the accession of Murad II, the eldest son of Mehmed, insurrection broke out as two pretenders laid claim to the Ottoman throne. These insurrections, both of which failed, are indicative of the profound malaise of the state, which for a quarter of a century had won no spectacular victories nor substantially enlarged its territories; but they also show a general acceptance of the Ottoman house as the manifest head of the state, so that even revolt had to be given a legitimist basis. The Christian powers, too, availed themselves of the internal difficulties of the Ottomans for their own purposes: Venice, with its superior maritime power, strengthened its hold on the Dalmatian and Aegean coastline, while Hungary made exertions to bring the Balkan provinces under its own hegemony. Nor did Asia fail to add to the anarchy: it was not until 1425 that southwest Anatolia was regained from a local rebel, and the Karamanoğlu, frequently as allies of the Christian powers in Europe, were unrelentingly menacing until their defeat in 1437.

A treaty of peace with Hungary in 1428 allowed for a concerted drive against Salonika, where since 1423 the Venetians had been holding out against the Ottomans. The fail of this city in 1430 was as important for the prestige it brought as for the strategic advantages it assured in the Aegean. But the victory was to be overshadowed almost at once by revolts in Albania, which proved to be but the prelude to a general rising of the Balkan and Danubian principalities, beginning in 1434. A campaign in Anatolia against the Karamanoğlu, which lasted from 1435 to 1437, allowed the situation in Europe to deteriorate further. In 1441 the great Hungarian national hero Jânos Hunyadi began the reconquest of the Balkans, while the other great figure of the period, George Castriota (Scanderbeg), in 1443 rought the whole of Albania into open revolt. Murad was obliged to sue for peace with the Hungarians, renouncing many of his Balkan conquests, while in Anatolia even the Karamanoğlu were able to exact humiliating terms from him as the price of remaining nonaggressive. But in December of 1444 the tide of fortune again turned in favor of the Ottomans: the Balkan alliance suffered a crushing defeat at the Battle of Varna, and in 1448 Hunyadi was again routed on the famous field of Kosovo. The Turks were to remain supreme in southeastern Europe for the next four centuries.


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Fatih Sultan Mehmet İngilizce Hayatı

Fatih Sultan MehmetFatih Sultan Mehmet (1432-1481) Murad II. died in 1451 and was succeeded by his son Mehmed II, known as Fatih (“the Conqueror”), a ruler who was to prove one of the truly great figures of the Renaissance and the architect of a political edifice that until its final disappearance in the 20th century bore the indelible mark of his genius.

It was the taking of Constantinople (istanbul) in 1453 that earned him his sobriquet. Even though that hitherto impregnable city had by this time been worn to exhaustion by the attrition of a century of Turkish hostility, its capture was nonetheless an achievement that astounded the contemporary world, just as the blow to Christendom, which its capture symbolized, brought Europe to despair. But despite a reign of almost constant military activity, it was not Mehmed’s ambition to enlarge the territories of the empire, but rather to consolidate and secure what was already held and to invest it with a central idea, a purpose, and an organization. What Christianity had been to Byzantium he made of islam for the Ottoman Empire: not the wild, emotional doctrines of the dervishes, which until then had prevailed among these Turks, but the developed creed that had evolved over the centuries and had bred its own characteristic civilization and culture. To achieve a centralized state he had to break the power of the Turkish military nobility. This he did by building up the strength of the Janissary corps and by appointing men loyal to the dynasty as the semifeudal provincial administrators. In the Palace School, which he founded shortly after transferring the capital to istanbul, he provided for the training of Christian slave children, collected periodically from among the subject peoples and forcibly converted to islam. These provided the state with a fund of devoted servants who could be trusted to administer the empire on behalf of their masters and benefactors. Likewise, the products of the theological colleges that he founded and encouraged were made virtually civil servants, whose aistribution as judges throughout the provinces introduced a unified system of Islamic law as the basis of the social order. Realizing that the empire could not aspire to commercial power, he nevertheless sought to control the trade passing through it by dominating the surrounding waters and obliging it to make its contribution to the economic life of the state. The subject minorities were permitted to retain a great measure of religious and social autonomy within their communities. Although agriculture was heavily taxed to finance these innovations, the levies made upon it were at least systematic and no longer subject to the caprice or the greed of local despots. It was the tragedy of the Ottoman Empire that the very period when it was at its most constructive should ave coincided with the general decline of the Mediterranean economy, brought about by the navigational discoveries in the late 15th century of new routes to the East. She was doomed to share the area’s poverty before she had ever enjoyed its prosperity.

The military preoccupations of Mehmed serve to show how tenuous and makeshift all previous Ottoman conquests had been and how little they differed from mere raids. Serbia was among the earliest places requiring attention, and it was only reduced to the status of a province in 1459 after four campaigns, during one of which (1456) Belgrade was unsuccessfully besieged. Albania was in a constant state of insurrection, and even after the death in 1468 of its inspiring leader, Scanderbeg, Venetian intrigues contrived to keep its resistance active. Between 1458 and 1459 most of the Morea fell under Ottoman control, and having taken many of the strategic islands of the Aegean and fortified the Dardanelles, Mehmed was now in a position to cut one of the most important commercial life-lines of the Venetian Republic. A war that was to last 16 years broke out between them in 1463, but as it was mainly confined to the sea and the cities of the littoral, it did not greatly distract Mehmed from the problems presented by his other territories. Walachia had accepted tributary status in 1462, and in the following year Bosnia was annexed and Hercegovina brought to a condition of subjection, which led ultimately to its formal incorporation in 1480. In 1461 Ottoman control of the Southern shores of the Black Sea was assured when Mehmed wrested the last surviving Byzantine stronghold of Trabzon from the feeble grasp of its Comnenid ruler, drove the Genoese from their colony in Amasra, and brought the semi-independent dynasty of the İsfendiyaroğlu, centered around Sinop, to an end. Dynastic troubles within the Karamanoğlu realm began in 1464, affording an opportunity of dealing finally with this stubborn rival, and within two years it too was to become a vilayet of the empire.

The campaign in 1472-1473 against the powerful ruler of Azerbaijan, Uzun Hasan, showed conclusively which side was the mightier. There was to be no further serious threat from this quarter until the rise of the Safavid dynasty at the beginning of the following century. Control over the Black Sea was tightened in 1475 by the capture of the Genoese colonies on its western shores and by reducing the Mongol rulers of the Crimea to vassalage; when next year Moldavia was conquered these waters became virtually an Ottoman lake. The Dalmatian coast also passed into Turkish control when Albania was finally pacified in 1478, and Venice was forced to come to terms with the changed political realities of the area by concluding a peace whereby, in addition to territorial concessions, she committed herself to an annual tribute in return for certain trading privileges in the lands of the empire. The extent to which Ottoman sea power had now grown may be seen in the fact that in 1480 Rhodes was besieged and
Otraııto in the heel of Italy occupied for a while. But whatever ambitions for further conquests in Europe these ventures may have been the prelude to were not be to realized, for in 1481 Mehmed died and with his death the youthful state entered upon a period of quiescence.


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Osmanlı Padişahı 2. Bayezid Dönemi (İngilizce)

2. Bayezid2. Bayezid; (1447-1512)

In 1481 Fatih Sultan Mehmed died and with his death the youthful state entered upon a period of quiescence.

Yet the military inactivity that characterizes the reign of his son and successor, Bayezid II, cannot be attributed to inertia. Time and tranquillity were needed to permit the new order established by Mehmed to operate properly. Furthermore, the grievances caused by his innovations among the Turkish sipahi class had to be contained before they became actually dangerous. The struggle for the throne between Bayezid and his younger brother Cem must be seen as a revolt of the sipahi’s of Anatolia; and the unrest here did not end with Cem’s defeat. Cem subsequently lived the remainder of his life as an exile in Europe. The fear that he might be used by the Christians as a puppet sultan in any eventual crusade against the Ottomans has in recent years often been advanced as one of the reasons for Bayezid’s conciliatory attitude toward Europe. But the fact is that throughout the whole of his long reign the true center of events lay in Anatolia.

The foundation of the Safavid state in Persia under Shah Ismail at the beginning of the 16th century exerted a powerful attraction on the disaffected elements in Anatolia, who were only too ready to accept any alternative Islamic hegemony. The five inconclusive wars that were fought with the Egyptian Mamluks in Syria and Anatolia between 1485 and 1491 must also be seen in this light. It is to Bayezid’s credit that he was able to prevent his enemies to the east and the soutn from profiting by the internal problems with whieh he was beset in Anatolia, while at the same time securing his hold on the Black Sea by the capture of Kilia and Akkerman (modern Belgorod-Dnestrovski) from the Genoese (1484), and on the eastern Mediterranean by seizing the important ports of the Morea—Lepanto, Modon, and Coron-from the Venetians (1499-1500). The Janissary establishment was greatly enlarged during his reign, and the Ottoman navy, for the first time, was developed into an organic arm of Ottoman strategy. The spectacular successes of his son Selim, who actually drove him from the throne in 1512 and is rumored to have had him poisoned in the same year, would have been impossible without the security and stability that Bayezid created.


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Yavuz Sultan Selim Dönemi (İngilizce)

Yavuz Sultan SelimSelim 1 (r,1512-1520)

Known as Yavuz (“the Formidable”), Selim secured his succession by a wholesale destruction of ali possible claimants to Ottoman descent. His reign was marked by two momentous victories by which the whole face of the empire was changed. In 1514 he met the challenge presented by the vigorous state that the Safavids were creating on his eastern frontiers, and on the Plain of Çaldıran (Chaldiran; to the east of Lake Van) utterly destroyed the army of Shah Isma’il and the hopes of all the discontented elements in Anatolia, who were looking in this direction for delivery from the Ottomans. After having brought all the eastern provinces into total submission, he turned his attention to the Mamluks, and in August 1516 he defeated their armies on a plain near Aleppo.

As a consequence the Mamluks were displaced from power and he became master of all their territories in Syria, Egypt, and Arabia. The Mamluks were so hated by the peoples whom they misruled for their own selfish advantage that once defeated there was little opposition to Selim’s progress, and by January 1517 he had taken Cairo. By this victory he incorporated into the empire the economic complex of the Nile Valley. This was, however, no more important in the eyes of the Islamic world than that he thereby also became the “Protector of the Holy Cities of Arabia,” Mecca and Medina in the Arabian peninsula. It was at this time that he is reported to have assumed the dignity of caliph, surrendered to him by the Abbasid incumbent whom the Mamluks had maintained as a façade of legitimacy for their own rule. In 1519 the pirate Barbarossa, who had seized the port of Algiers and sought to exercise control over all of central North Africa, offered his submission to the Sublime Porte (the European translation of Bab-ı ‘ali; the term is used to indicate the Turkish court) in order to gain the protection of Ottoman prestige. Thus the notorious Barbary corsairs became citizens of the empire. Ultimately they proved to be more an embarrassment and a burden than an asset.


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Kanuni Sultan Süleyman İngilizce Hayatı

Kanuni Sultan SüleymanKanuni Sultan Süleyman (1494-1566)

In 1520 Selim was succeeded by his son Süleyman, known in the West as “the Magnificent” and in the East as Kanuni, “the Lawgiver.” His reign of 46 years was to witness the apogee of Ottoman power and glory, towering above all rivals and competitors. His title of “Lawgiver” refers to his redistribution of the provinces of the empire and his provision of each with an individual statute of obligations and privileges, the financial aspects of which were based on actual land surveys. This was the first attempt ever made to estimate systematically the revenues of the empire, though it must be acknowledged that the information seldom seems to have contributed to the elaboration of a definite economic policy. His political objectives, however, were well defined: the conquest of Hungary, the domination of the Mediterranean, control of the Tigris-Euphrates regions, and the neutralization of Safavid Persia. The first of these brought him into conflict with Habsburg Austria and so redoubtable an adversary as the Emperor Charles V. Süleyman captured Belgrade in 1521, and in 1526 he defeated King Louis II of Hungary at the famous Battle of Mohâcs. By 1528 the Ottoman army was besieging Vienna. Budapest was taken the following year, and by 1541 Transylvania was an Ottoman protectorate; from 1547 onward, Austria found it more expedient to pay an annual tribute to the Porte than to resist its arms. In these wars Süleyman was acting more or less as an ally of France. His particular contribution to the alliance was made in the Mediterranean where, following the capture of Rhodes from the Knights of St. John in 1522, Ottoman strength had been growing relentlessly.

In 1533 Barbarossa was made grand admiral of the fleet, and until his death in 1546 he was seldom effectively challenged in these waters. Tunisia fell to him in 1534, becoming another corsair state within the empire. In 1538 his defeat of Andrea Doria off Preveza put the seal of Ottoman supremacy on the Mediterranean. So confident had Süleyman become that he even thought to contest Portuguese power in the Persian Gulf by sending a fleet to Gujarat, India, in 1538 and again in 1554, but neither of these were to experience anything but disaster. Most of the islands of the Aegean were annexed (Chios fell in 1566), though Malta, to which the Knights of St. John had come after losing Rhodes, successfully resisted a determined siege in 1565. Iraq was invaded and the capital city of Baghdad taken in 1534, assuring control of this key center of the economic life of the Middle East. Though at least two other campaigns were directed against the Safavids, their chief result was the intimidation of the unquiet territories through which the armies passed. Süleyman died in 1566 during the siege of Szigetvâr, and with him the heroic age of Ottoman history comes to an end.


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Kemal Sunal’ın İngilizce Hayatı

kemal-sunal-resimleri-3Kemal Sunal;(11 November 1944, Istanbul – 3 July 2000, Istanbul) was a master of comedy in the Turkish history of cinema. Famed for his parts as “İnek Şaban”. With “Hababam Sınıfı”, “Kapıcılar Kralı” and “Davaro”, Sunal gained large popularity amongst Turkish cinema goers and was famed for his role as “Şaban”, a name he most often used in his films. His character in films and sayings often reflected the problems the Turkish people face and the country.

Kemal Sunal graduated from Vefa Lisesi (Vefa High School). In his early ages, he started pursuing what was to become a long and successful acting career, in minor roles in theatres. For a brief period, he worked in the Kenterler Theatre and took part in his first play Zoraki Takip. He was later transferred to the Devekuşu Kabare Theatre, where he performed his acting.

He was recognized as a true talent, and started receiving offers with larger budgets and more famous casts. His first film was by Ertem Eğilmez. In a matter of years, Sunal co-starred with Halit Akçatepe, Şener Şen, Münir Özkul and so on.

Perhaps the most famous of all his parts was when he played in the “hababam sinifi” and was known by the name of “Şaban” but most of his class mates just call him inek (geek) Şaban. The member of Hababam Sınıfı (The Outrageous Class), was a good laugh for many. İnek Şaban was constantly bullied and humiliated by his friends, but this never kept him from thinking the unthinkable, like digging a tunnel to escape school grounds (which later, turned out to lead to the vice-principal’s office) or smoking in the school attic. The character was so pure and so fixed in the memories of the Turkish people, it was never replaced by another actor in the recent re-shootings of Hababam Sinifi, most probably as a sign of respect to Sunal.

His other notable characters include: Tosun Pasha; Süt Kardeş Şaban; Çöpçüler Kralı, who fell in love with a municipality officer’s fiancee; Doktor Civanım, a former hospital janitor pretending to be a doctor upon his return to his home village; and finally “Orta Direk Şaban”, a naive man trying to become an athlete to impress his crush.

Apart from the hilariousness of his movies, one of the reasons that they were so popular were because they addressed many of the problems faced by the urban poor in Turkey during the 1970s and 1980s. In almost all of his films, Kemal Sunal plays a poor man, trying to make something of himself.

Sunal’s last film was Propaganda, which was directed by Sinan Çetin. Sunal, played a customs officer-in-charge (presumably) on the Syrian border. Being a drama, this film was a contrast to his other works. As the plot unfolded, Sunal’s character fell into despair, trying to survive the dilemma between his duties as an officer of the law and his duties as a friend. In public opinion, this film was not the best of jubilees for the master. In fact, it had not been meant to be a jubilee at all. Another significant fact about this film is that it also included Ali Sunal, Kemal Sunal’s son, cast as a junior customs officer.


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Alfred Nobel İngilizce Hayatı

Born: Oct 21, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden
Died: Dec 10, 1896 (at age 63) in Sanremo, Italy
Nationality: Swedish
Famous For: Invention of dynamite, establishment of Nobel Prize

Alfred Nobel was born on October 21st, 1833 in Stockholm, Sweden. History shows that the men in his family were mostly engineers and businessmen and Alfred was quick to follow in their footsteps. In 1842, Alfred and his family moved to St. Petersburg where his father, Immanuel Nobel, had built a factory for armament a few years earlier. His father used to manufacture land mines for the Tsar’s army where he often made good profits. All throughout his life Alfred showed a lot of wit especially in his ability to quickly master foreign languages; he mastered four foreign languages. Alfred also showed great intelligence in natural sciences, especially in chemistry.

Work and Discoveries

In 1850 he went abroad to study chemical engineering. He travelled to Sweden, France, Germany and the United States before returning to Sweden in 1863. While in Sweden he devoted most of his time to the study of explosives. In particular, he was interested in the safe manufacture of a compound called nitro-glycerin. Nitro-glycerin is a highly unstable explosive. Nobel was interest in it mainly because his brother Emil has been killed in an explosion caused by the substance. He added the nitro-glycerin into silica. This made the compound safer and easier to manipulate. In 1867 he perfected the science and called it dynamite. Dynamite was what made Nobel one of the most famous chemists in history. Dynamite was then used all over the world for blasting tunnels, building railways, roads and cutting canals. Nobel went on to create many other kinds of explosives and his work was recognized all over the world. He even received an honorary award from the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. They recognized his inventions which were of practical use to mankind. This award drove him to achieve many other science awards.

Life in Business

In the 1870’s and 1880’s Alfred was able to build quite a number of factories all over Europe that were used in the manufacturing of explosives. He bought an ironworks facility in Sweden in 1894 which later became the center of the famous Bofors arms factory. By the time Nobel died he had registered over 355 patents.

Nobel Prizes

It took quite some time before Alfred was able to write up his will. The final version of the will stated that all of his fortune should be reserved for presenting annual awards in the fields of chemistry, physics, medicine, literature and peace. An economics prize was also added later. Nobel died at his home in San Remo on December 10th, 1896 and is buried in Stockholm, Sweden. The contents of his will became known after his death. With this generosity and selflessness, Alfred Nobel founded the Nobel Prizes which have inspired and motivated many people in different fields.


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Marie Curie İngilizce Hayatı

Born: Nov 7, 1867 in Warsaw, Kingdom of Poland
Died: July 4, 1934 (at age 66) in Passy, Haute-Savoie, France
Nationality: Polish, French
Famous For: Radium, Polonium, Radioactivity
Awards: Nobel Prize in Chemistry (1911), Matteucci Medal (1904), Davy Medal (1903), Nobel Prize in Physics (1903)

Marie Curie was a famous Polish chemist. Marie and her husband Pierre Curie were early researchers in radioactivity. She received her first Nobel Prize in 1903 for physics, together with Pierre and Henri Bequerell, for research in the area of radioactivity. In 1911, she was given a second Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her work in discovering radium and polonium.

Early Life

Marie Curie was born in Poland in 1867 and was the daughter of a secondary school teacher. She learned to read when she was only four years old and was fascinated by the scientific instruments her father kept at their home. She later took work as a teacher and also created a free university where she would accept other females as students since institutes of higher learning in Poland did not enroll women at the time.

In 1891, Marie went to Paris and joined Sorbonne University to study physics and mathematics where she met Pierre Curie. They got married him in 1895. Pierre Curie was the professor of the school of physics and chemistry.


Both Marie and Pierre worked together investigating radioactivity, based on the work conducted by the French Physicist Henry Becquerell and German Physicist Roentgen. In 1898 the Curie’s discovered the elements polonium and radium. They received the Nobel Prize for Physics in the year 1903 along with Henry Bequerel.
Pierre Curie died in the year 1906, after which Marie took over the job Pierre was doing, making her the first lady to teach in Sorbonne. She was devoted to continue the work she and Pierre Curie started together. In 1911, Marie received her second Nobel Prize, this time in chemistry for her discovery and isolation of radium and its compounds. Marie Curie also proved that radium can successfully cure certain illnesses. Even today, it plays an important role in the treatment of cancer. She is noted for being the person who introduced the use of X-ray technology and radium in medicine. Marie Curie was the first person to hold two Nobel Prizes in the sciences; Physics and chemistry.


During WWI, Marie Curie drove ambulances equipped with X-ray equipment to help victims. The International Red Cross made Marie Curie the head of its radiology services, where she and her co-workers would conduct classes for doctors and medical orderlies on how to utilize the new technique. Due to continued exposure to hazardous radioactive elements, Marie became ill and died on July 4th, 1934. She is recognized as one of the greatest researchers as well as an outstanding female scientist.


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Vincent Van Gogh İngilizce Hayatı

Vincent van Gogh was born in the Netherlands on March 30, 1853. His mother had given birth to an already dead baby (stillborn) one year earlier, also on March 30. That baby had also been named Vincent. Over the course of his 37 years, Vincent painted some of the most renowned paintings of our time and went a little crazy in the process.

Vincent van Gogh’s Early Years

Vincent van Gogh quit school when he was only 15 and headed off to England in 1869. There he began a career not as a painter but as an art dealer with the firm Goupil & Cie. Van Gogh spent seven years with the firm, but became unhappy and decided to try his hand teaching at a Catholic school for boys. In the following years, Vincent went from job to job, living in various cities in Europe. Finally in 1880, van Gogh decided to head to Brussels to begin studies in art. During the next ten years, Vincent van Gogh painted 872 paintings.

The Famous Vincent van Gogh

Although Vincent van Gogh is a world-famous artist today, he did not get much recognition during his lifetime. Van Gogh only sold one painting while he was alive, which was Red Vineyard at Arles. For most of his life he was very poor, often spending his money on art supplies instead of food.

Vincent van Gogh’s Dark Side

Vincent also suffered from severe depression and was admitted to an asylum in December 1888, after chopping off his own ear. He would be in and out of asylums for the next year. It is thought that Vincent van Gogh was actually epileptic (a condition of the brain that causes seizures) and that is why people thought he had fits of insanity throughout his life. While in the asylum Vincent painted one of his best-known paintings, Starry Night. In mid-May 1890, Vincent left the asylum and spent the last few months of his life in Auvers, France. On July 27, 1890 Vincent van Gogh shot himself in the chest with a revolver. Two days later he died with his younger brother, Theo, by his side.

Portrait of Vincent van Gogh

For the last few months of van Gogh’s life, he was seeing Dr. Gachet about his mental instability. Van Gogh’s Portrait of Dr. Gachet remains one of the most expensive paintings in the world. In 1990, Japanese businessman Ryoei Saito, paid $82.5 million for the painting. But since his death in 1996, the painting has not been seen.


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Nikola Tesla İngilizce Hayatı

Nikola Tesla was born in the Croatian town of Smiljan (Austrian Empire) in 1856 to a priest father. He studied electrical engineering at the Austrian Polytechnic in Graz and later attended the Charles-Ferdinand University in Prague. Unfortunately his father died early, and he had to leave the university after completing only one term.

Tesla accepted a job under Tivadar Puskás in a Budapest telegraph company in 1880. He was later promoted to chief electrician and later engineer for the company. He later moved to Paris to work for the Continental Edison Company as an engineer.

Contributions and Achievements:

After moving to New York, United States, Tesla worked for Thomas Alva Edison, but the two did not get along well. He started working with George Westinghouse in 1885. There, he devised an electrical distribution system that employed alternating current (AC).

Tesla made public the first successful wireless energy transfer to power electronic devices in 1891.

Probably Tesla’s most important contribution to energy history is the use of alternating current (AC). The Westinghouse Electric Company was the first implement this technology by lighting the World Colombian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. It proved to be a more efficient and effective method as compared to the direct current (DC) system of Edison to transport electricity in a grid. The technology quickly became the basis for most modern electricity distribution systems. Besides the AC system, Tesla helped in the development of generators and turbine design. The earliest demonstration fluorescent lighting was also his accomplishment.

Later Life and Death:

Nikola Tesla continued his research work on electricity generation and turbine design in his later life. Even at 81, he claimed to have completed a “dynamic theory of gravity” – something which was never published. He died in New York City of a heart thrombus in January 1943. He was 86 years old.


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Michael Faraday İngilizce Hayatı

Born: Sept 22, 1791 in Newington Butts, England
Died: Aug 25, 1867 (at age deadAGE) in Hampton Court, Middlesex, England
Nationality: British
Famous For: Faraday constant, Faraday cage, Faraday effect, Faraday’s law of induction, Electrochemistry, and many others
Awards: Rumford Medal (1846)
Copley Medal (1832 & 1838)
Royal Medal (1835 & 1846)

Michael Faraday was one of the great scientists of the nineteenth century, who amongst his other discoveries, helped to convert electricity into a property that could be easily utilized. His main discoveries include electromagnetic induction, electrolysis, and diamagnetism. He has contributed significantly to the study of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

Early Life

Michael Faraday was born in South London in the year 1791 into a poor family. He attended a day school where he was taught to read, write and count. When he was 13 years old, he was forced to work to help his family’s finances. He started an apprenticeship at a local book binding shop, where he would read and teach himself various scientific concepts during his spare time. He spent seven years serving his apprenticeship with the book binder. In 1810, Michael started to attend lecture classes at the John Tatum’s house. Though he attended lectures on various topics, but his main areas of interest where electricity, mechanics, and galvanism.

In 1812, Faraday got some tickets to attend a series of lectures given by Humphry Davy at the Royal Institution. Faraday made careful copies of lectures he had given. Faraday’s apprenticeship ended in 1812 and he took a job as a bookbinder. Still, Faraday was attempting to get into science, which was his real interest. In such an attempt, he wrote a letter to Humphry Davy along with the copies of notes he had taken during lecture classes. Davy was impressed with Faraday and appointed him as his assistant.

Faraday’s Works

Faraday’s early works were based on chemistry. He studied chlorine as well as new chlorides of carbon. One of Faraday’s most practical and useful inventions was an early version of the Bunsen burner.
Electromagnetism and electricity were the main focuses of Faraday. Although, electricity was discovered earlier, it was Faraday who, through his electro-magnetic rotation model, played a critical role in providing a continuous source of electricity. His theories of electromagnetism also proved to be useful in the electricity industry in the 19th century. His continuous research works led to the discovery of diamagnetism as well.

Faraday also undertook various science projects. One among them was the study of coal dust along with another scientist named Charles Lyell. They became interested in this after a big explosion that happened in a coal mine in Durham in the year 1865. The recommendations made by the researchers were not acted upon until another tragedy happened in the year 1913.

Final Days

Michael Faraday’s mental abilities started to decline during mid 1850’s which made him to do less research work than usual. He died at Hampton Court in the year 1867.


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Louis Pasteur İngilizce Hayatı

Born: Dec 27, 1822 in Dole, Jura, Franche-Comté, France
Died: Sep 28, 1895 (at age 72) in Marnes-la-Coquette, Hauts-de-Seine, France
Nationality: French
Famous For: Immunology & vaccination
Awards: Leeuwenhoek medal (1895), Knight of the Legion of Honour (1853), Grand Officer (1878), Grand Croix of the Legion of Honor (1881), Order of the Medjidie

Louis Pasteur was a French chemist who made a lot of contributions to medicine, chemistry and industry that greatly benefited humanity. His discovery that bacteria spread diseases has saved countless lives. He is one of the most extraordinary scientists in history, leaving a legacy of scientific contributions that led him to be called the founder of microbiology.

Early Years

Louis Pasteur was born in 1822 in Dole, France. He had a very normal student life and was noted for his great skills in the arts, especially with painting and drawing. Though Pasteur was not very good in his studies, he was a hardworking and conscientious student. Spurred by his teachers’ encouragement, Louis Pasteur undertook rigorous efforts to study hard to get into college at the Ecole Normale Superieure. There he earned his doctorate degree in the year 1847.

After teaching and researching for a year in Dijon Lycee, Louis became a professor of chemistry at Strasbourg University in 1848. This is where he met his wife, Marie Larent, who was the daughter of the university’s rector. They were married in 1849 and had five children, but only two survived childhood.


When Louis started working at the University of Strasbourg, he began to study about fermentation, the process of breaking organic materials using microorganisms. In 1854, Pasteur joined became a chemistry faculty member in Lille. Here he launched his studies on fermentation. At that time period, many scientists believed that fermentation occurred spontaneously by a series of chemical reactions, where enzymes played a crucial role. Pasteur, however, believed that fermentation was carried out by living microorganisms.

In Lille, Louis was able to demonstrate that micro-organisms were responsible for the souring of beer and wine. He showed that the same microbes could be removed by a process called pasteurization, which involves boiling and cooling the liquid immediately. He later extended his studies into milk as well. Pasteur also proved that these microorganisms that are responsible for the souring of wine, beer, and milk were naturally introduced from the environment.

In 1857, Pasteur joined as a director of scientific studies at Ecole Normale. Here he continued to study the fermentation process. He was asked by the silk industry in France to help them when there was an epidemic among the silkworms. Even without any prior experience, Pasteur identified the cause of the infection and saved the silk industry.

Pasteur proved that various diseases in the human body were caused by micro-organisms that multiply in the body. He also found that, if such microbes are weakened and kept in the animal’s body, it creates resistance to the microbe. This method of fighting off microbes was called vaccination.

In 1868, Louis suffered a stroke that left him partially paralyzed. Despite his paralysis, Louis continued to do his research. His first vaccine for a disease called chicken cholera was discovered in 1879. He then went further to create other vaccines for anthrax, tuberculosis, small pox, and cholera. He then focused his effort to develop a vaccine for rabies in 1882. The rabies vaccine developed by Louis brought him immediate fame, which led to the set up of an international fundraising campaign for to construct the Pasteur Institute in Paris.

Final Days

Louis died on September 28th, 1895. His remains were transferred in 1896 to a crypt in the Pasteur Institute.


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Justin Bieber İngilizce Hayatı

Justin Bieber is a pop singer who burst onto the music scene in 2009 at the age of fifteen. He’s had many hit singles and albums since and had become a major pop star.

Where did Justin grow up?

Justin was born in London Ontario on March 1, 1994. He grew up and was raised by his mom in Stratford, Ontario. He had a strong interest in music at a young age and learned how to play the drums, guitar, and piano by himself. He clearly had some natural musical talent! His mom started recording videos of him singing and playing songs. She would post them on You Tube. This worked out very well as Justin was later discovered when a music executive saw one of his videos on You Tube.

Who discovered Justin Bieber?

Justin was first discovered by music executive Scooter Braun. Story has it that he clicked on one of Justin’s You Tube videos by accident and liked what he saw. He told the artist Usher about Justin and Usher would later help sign Justin to a record deal. Justin’s first hit single was called One Time. After that he released his first full album called My World. My World was a huge success. With his debut album, Bieber made history being the first artist to have seven songs on his first album to be listed on the Billboard Hot 100. In 2010 Bieber released the second part of his debut album called My World 2.0. His success didn’t fade as this album had his biggest song yet entitled Baby. At one point Baby was the most watched You Tube video ever!

Has Justin performed on any TV Shows?

The list of TV shows that Justin has been on during his short career is astounding. Here is a list of some of them: Saturday Night Live, the David Letterman Show, Kids Choice Awards, the Ellen DeGeneres Show, Nightline, Lopez Tonight, the Today Show, and Good Morning America. List of Justin Bieber Albums 2009, My World 2010 My World 2.0 2010 My World Acoustic, Under the Mistletoe (2011), Believe (2012), Purpose (2015)

Fun Facts about Justin Bieber

Justin’s middle name is Drew.
He performed for President Obama at the White House Christmas special.
He performed on the New Year’s Rockin’ Eve show.
He likes to play chess.
Won many awards in 2010 including the Artist of the Year on the American Music Awards.
He was a guest star on the TV show CSI.
His favorite sports are hockey and soccer.


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Demi Lovato İngilizce Hayatı

Demi Lovato is a young actress and singer. She has recorded CDs and starred on both TV shows and in movies. She is best known for her lead role on the TV show Sonny With A Chance as well as starring in the Disney Camp Rock movie series.

Where did Demi grow up?

Demi was born on August 20, 1992 in Dallas, Texas. She started playing the piano at age 7 and fell in love with music. She soon learned guitar and was writing her own songs. She asked her mom to home school her after being bullied at school. She went the rest of the way through school at home and even got her high school diploma this way.

What was Demi Lovato’s first acting job?

Demi’s first acting job was on Barney & Friends at the young age of 7. Later she would have a small role on a few shows and then got a bit bigger role on the Disney Channel show As the Bell Rings. Her first big break came with the starring role in the Disney Channel movie Camp Rock. The movie was a huge success and Demi soon became famous for both her acting in the movie as well as her singing. Since then Lovato has starred in more movies including Camp Rock 2: The Final Jam and Princess Protection Program as well as starring in her own Disney Channel comedy sitcom Sonny with a Chance.

Demi has also had a successful music career. She has been busy! She was featured on both the Camp Rock soundtracks and came out with her own CD’s as well. Her first Album, Don’t Forget, made it to number 2 on the billboard charts.

List of Demi Lovato movie and TV Roles

2008 Camp Rock
2009 Jonas Brothers: The 3D Experience
2009 Pricess Protection Program
2010 Camp Rock 2: The Final Jam
2012 Demi Lovato: Stay Strong
2017 Smurfs 3
2017 Charming

2002 Barney and Friends
2006 Prison Break 2006 Split Ends
2007 As the Bell Rings
2008 Just Jordan
2009 Sonny with a Chance
2010 Grey’s Anatomy
2011 Kim’s Fairytale Wedding: A Kardashian Event, Part 2
2012 Punk’d “Nick Cannon”
2012-13 The X Factor
2013-14 Glee
2015 xxx

List of Demi Lovato Albums

2008 Don’t Forget
2008 Camp Rock
2009 Here We Go Again
2010 Camp Rock 2
2010 Sunny With A Chance
2011 A Rose to the Fallen
2011 Unbroken
2013 Demi
2015 Confident
2017 Tell Me You Love Me


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Selena Gomez İngilizce Hayatı

Selena Gomez has become one of today’s rising young stars. She’s an actress and recording artist and is most widely known for her starring role as Alex Russo on Disney Channel’s Wizards of Waverly Place.

Where did Selena grow up?

Selena Gomez was born on July 22, 1992 in Grand Prairie, Texas. She was an only child and got her high school diploma by homeschooling. Her favorite sport is basketball and her favorite subject in school was science.

How did Selena first get into acting?

Her mom was an actress in the theatre which got Selena interested in acting. She got her first real acting job on the kids show Barney & Friends at the age of 7. She had a few other smaller roles until at the age of 12 she started working for the Disney Channel. She started off with a small role on the Suite Life of Zack And Cody then she was on Hannah Montana a few times. Her big break, however, was when she was cast as Alex Russo on Wizards of Waverly Place. The show has been very successful and Selena has been a big part of the shows success.

Since joining Wizards of Waverly Place, Selena’s acting career has grown. She’s been a guest star on several other Disney Channel shows and starred in Disney Channel movies such as Princess Protection Program (with her friend Demi Lovato) and Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie. Bigger roles have started to open up for her, too. She starred as Beezus in the major motion picture Ramona and Beezus in 2010.

What is Selena Gomez and The Scene?

Selena Gomez and the Scene is a pop music band with Selena Gomez as the lead singer. Selena decided she didn’t want to make solo albums, but wanted to be part of a band. So she started up the band The Scene. Their first two albums went gold selling over 500,000 copies. In 2010 the band won Breakout Artist of the Year on the Teen Choice Awards.

A list of Selena Gomez movies and TV shows

2003 Spy Kids 3-D: Game Over
2005 Walker, Texas Ranger: Trial by Fire
2006 Brain Zapped
2008 Another Cinderella Story
2008 Horton Hears a Who!
2009 Princess Protection Program
2009 Wizards of Waverly Place: The Movie
2009 Arthur and the Vengeance of Maltazard
2010 Ramona and Beezus
2011 Monte Carlo
2011 Thirteen Reasons
2011 The Muppets
2012 Hotel Transylvania
2012 Thirteen Reasons Why
2012 Hot Mess
2013 Spring Breakers
2013 Getaway
2014 Rudderless
2014 Behaving Badly
2015 Hotel Transylvania 2
2016 In Dubious Battle
2016 The Big Short
2016 Neighbors 2

2003 – 2004 Barney & Friends
2006 The Suite Life of Zack and Cody
2007 – 2008 Hannah Montana
2009 Sonny With a Chance
2009 The Suite Life on Deck
2007 – present Wizards of Waverly Place
2012 So Random
2011 PrankStars
2013 Austin Mahone Takeover

2007 Wizard of Waverly Place
2009 Kiss & Tell
2010 A Year Without Rain
2011 When the Sun Goes Down
2013 Stars Dance
2014 For You
2015 Revival


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Taylor Swift İngilizce Hayatı

Taylor Swift is a pop and country music artist. She has won many Grammy Awards including Album of the Year for her record Fearless. She is one of the most popular musical artists in the world today.

Where did Taylor Swift grow up?

Taylor Swift was born in Wyomissing, Pennsylvania on December 13, 1989. She loved to sing as a young girl and was singing karaoke locally at the age of 10. When she was eleven she sang the National Anthem at a Philadelphia 76ers game. She started learning guitar about that time. It was a computer repairman who taught her a few chords on the guitar when he was at her house helping to fix her parent’s computer. From there Taylor practiced and practiced until she could write songs and play the guitar effortlessly.

Taylor also knew she wanted to be a singer/songwriter from the start. At the age of 11 she took a demo tape to Nashville, but was rejected by every record label in town. Taylor didn’t give up, however, she knew what she wanted to do and wasn’t going to take no for an answer.

How did Taylor get her first recording contract?

Taylor’s parents knew she was talented and moved to Hendersonville, Tennessee so she would be close to Nashville. It took a few years of hard work, but in 2006 Taylor released her first single “Tim McGraw” and a self-title debut album. Both were very successful. The album reached number 1 on the Top Country Albums and was at the top of the charts for 24 out of the next 91 weeks.

Taylor’s music career did not slow down. Her second album, Fearless, was even bigger than her first. It was the most downloaded country album in history at one time and had 7 songs in the top 100 at the same time. Three different songs from the album all had over 2 million paid downloads each. Taylor was now a superstar. The success of Fearless did not stop with commercial success and sales, the album also won many critical awards including Grammy Awards for Album of the Year, Best Country Album, Best Female Country Vocal (White Horse), and Best Country Song (White Horse). Taylor’s third album, Speak Now, sold over 1 million copies in the first week.

Taylor Swift Discography

Taylor Swift (2006)
Fearless (2008)
Speak Now (2010)
Red (2012)
1989 (2014)
Reputation (2017)


Valentine’s Day (2010)
The Lorax (2012)
The Giver (2014)


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Miley Cyrus İngilizce Hayatı

Miley Cyrus is a pop singer and actress. She is most famous for her role as the lead in Disney Channels’ TV show Hannah Montana. She also gained fame as singer under the name Hannah Montana and, later, Miley Cyrus.

Where did Miley grow up?

Miley was born on November 22, 1992 in Nashville, Tennessee. Her birth name is Destiny Hope Cyrus. She grew up on a big farm in Franklin, Tennessee until she was eight years old when her family moved to Toronto, Canada.

How did Miley get into acting?

When she lived in Toronto her dad was an actor on a television series called Doc. Miley got to see what acting was like by watching her dad. When she was 9 years old her dad took her to see the musical Mama Mia! Miley was so impressed she decided right then and there that she wanted to be an actor and singer as well. Her first acting job was on her dad’s show Doc.

How did Miley get the role of Hannah Montana?

When Miley first heard about the show Hannah Montana she wanted the role of Lilly, Hannah’s best friend. So she sent an audition tape to Disney in hopes of getting the chance to audition. They sent back that she should try out for the lead role. She auditioned, but they originally said she was too young for the part. Miley kept trying, though, and she finally got the lead role and the rest is history.

What is Miley’s dad famous for?

Miley’s dad, Billy Ray Cyrus, is mostly famous for being a country music singer. He is most known for the country song Achy Breaky Heart, but has had a number of other hit songs and albums. He is also an actor and was on Dancing with the Stars.

List of Miley Cyrus and Hannah Montana Albums

As Hannah:
2006 Hannah Montana
2007 Hannah Montana 2
2009 Hannah Montana: The Movie
2009 Hannah Montana 3
2010 Hannah Montana Forever

As Miley:
2007 Meet Miley Cyrus
2008 Breakout
2010 The Last Song
2012 LOL
2012 So Undercover
2013 Miley: The Movement
2015 The Night Before
2015 A Very Murray Christmas
2016 Crisis in Six Scenes
2017 Guardians of the Galaxy Vol. 2


2007 Meet Miley Cyrus
2008 Breakout
2010 Can’t Be Tamed
2013 Bangerz
2015 Miley Cyrus & Her Dead Petz
2017 Younger Now


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Barış Manço İngilizce Hayatı

Barış Manço; (birth. January 2, 1943 in Istanbul, Turkey – death February 1, 1999 in Istanbul, Turkey – heart attack) was the Singer, composer, movie actor, TV producer, TV celebrity. Married to Lale, and father of two sons: Dogukan and Batikan.

After high school education in Galatasaray Lisesi, Turkey, he graduated from “L’Académie Royale des Beaux Arts de Liège” in Belgium in 1969.

He wrote, composed and performed more than 200 songs. A large number of these songs were translated into Greek, Bulgarian, Romanian, Arabic, Persian, Kurdish and re-recorded by local artists. 12 of his albums were crowned gold and 1 platinum.

In 1988, after 30 years of brilliant singer career, with a young and dynamic team, he created a new “family and children oriented” TV show for TRT 1 (Turkish State TV, 1st. Channel). The basic idea was, to travel around the world, to meet remote people (mainly children) and to try to build new cultural bridges between countries in a unique blend of an educational, entertaining but musical atmosphere. “From 7 to 77 with Baris Manco”, completed it’s eight successful year, and reached its 300th. week (an anniversary that has never celebrated before by any TV show in Turkey) is still one of the nation’s most favorite Sunday TV shows and is retransmitted the same day, by satellite to Europe, to the Mediterranean area, to the Central Asia and to the Middle East. Baris Manco and his TV crew traveled “From the Polar Circle to Equator”, via Patagonia and Himalayas, and covered more than 150 countries. In other words, they toured some twelve times and a half, around the world. The presidents, philosophers, writers, members of the royal families, superstars, astronauts… are among those whom Baris Manco has already hosted in his show. As a token of appreciation for such an international cultural effort, Baris Manco received some 300 Grand Prix awards, trophies, prizes and nominations in his career. Such as: Doctor Honoris Causa Es Art of the Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey (1991), Turkish State Artist of the Republic of Turkey (1991), International Culture and Peace Award of the Soka University, Tokyo, Japan (1991), Chevalier de l’Ordre des Arts et des Lettres of the Republic of France, Paris (1992), Chevalier de l’Ordre de Léopold II of the Kingdom of Belgium, Brussels (1992), Honorific Citizen of Turkmenistan, Ashgabat (1995), Doctor Honoris Causa of the Pamukkale University, Turkey (1995), Highest Honor Award of Art of Min-On foundation, Tokyo, Japan (1995).

Baris also had political ambitions and in 1995 he was candidate for mayor of the Istanbul district of Kadikoy by the conservative True Path Party (DYP), but heart problems forced him to withdraw from the race.

He was fond of Victorian and Art Deco furniture. He owned two of the largest collections of Art Nouveau Glass and 18th. century Japanese “Imari” porcelain in Turkey.

He died unexpectedly on 31st January 1999, from a heart attack. His funeral service was held on the 3rd of February 1999 at the Ataturk State Theater in Istanbul and huge masses of people gathered along his last trip to the mosque of Levent, after which Baris Manco was buried.


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Salvador Dali İngilizce Hayatı

Salvador Dali was a prominent Spanish surrealist painter born in Figueres, Catalonia, on 11 May 1904. Dali’s father was strict in the education of his children unlike the mother. Dali had a brother named Salvador who was born nine months before him and died of gastroenteritis. When he was five, Dali was taken to his brother’s grave and was told that he was his brother’s reincarnation.

Early age

At an early age, Salvador Dali’s parents encouraged him to produce highly sophisticated drawings and was sent to drawing school in Figueres, Spain, in 1916.

In February 1921, Dali’s mother died of breast cancer. Dali was 16 years old; he later said his mother’s death was the greatest blow he had experienced in his life. After her death, Dali’s father married his deceased wife’s sister. Dali did not resent this marriage, because he had a great love and respect for his aunt.

The development of his own style

In 1922, Dali moved to Madrid and studied at the Real Academia de Bellas Artes de San Fernando where he already drew attention as an eccentric and dandy. He was influenced by several different artistic styles, including Metaphysics and Cubism. Dalí was expelled from the Academy in 1926, shortly before his final exams when he was accused of starting an unrest.

Later, Dali visited Paris where he met Pablo Picasso whom he revered. Picasso had already heard favorable reports about Dalí from Joan Miró, a fellow Catalan who introduced him to many Surrealist friends. As he developed his own style over the next few years, Dalí made a number of works heavily influenced by Picasso and Miró.

Marriage to Gala

In August 1929, Dali met his lifelong and primary muse, inspiration, and future wife Gala. She was a Russian immigrant ten years his senior. They married in 1934. In addition to inspiring many artworks throughout her life, Gala would act as Dalí’s business manager.

Dali’s work

Dali was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí’s expansive artistic repertoire included film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media.

Arab lineage

Dali attributed his “love of everything that is gilded and excessive, my passion for luxury and my love of oriental clothes” to an “Arab lineage”, claiming that his ancestors were descended from the Moors.

Eccentric manner

Dali was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and grandiose behavior. His eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork, to the dismay of those who held his work in high esteem, and to the irritation of his critics.


In 1980 at age 76, Dali’s health took a catastrophic turn. His right hand trembled terribly, with Parkinson-like symptoms. His near-senile wife allegedly had been dosing him with a dangerous cocktail of unprescribed medicine that damaged his nervous system, thus causing an untimely end to his artistic capacity.

His wife Gala died on 10 June 1982, at the age of 87. After Gala’s death, Dali lost much of his will to live. On the morning of 23 January 1989, while his favorite record of Tristan and Isolde played, Dalí died of heart failure at Figueres at the age of 84.


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Serenay Sarıkaya İngilizce Hayatı

Serenay Sarikaya was born 1 July 1991 in Ankara,Turkey.She is a Turkish actress and model. At the age 15, she participated in a beauty competition and received a special award from the jury.She later rose to prominence by acting in the cinema movie Plajda (2008). Serenay made her acting debut with a minor part in the movie Saskin (2006) and later starred in the film Plajda (2008). At the same year she appeared in the television series Peri Masali (2008) directed by Sinan Cetin and was later prepared by him for her first leading role in Limon Agaci (2008). She later appeared at the final episodes of Adanali (2008-2010).

Serenay became the first runner-up at Miss Turkey 2010. She came to international attention for her roles in Lale Devri (2010-2012) and Medcezir (2013-2015) and received critical acclaim and won numerous accolades, including two Golden Butterfly Awards. She continued her movie career with a role in Behzat C. Ankara Yaniyor (2013). In 2013 she was chosen Best Stylish Actress in “Turkey Elle Style Awards”.In 2014, she was chosen as the Woman of the Year by “GQ Turkey”. As well she is the face of numerous brands. She is one of the best model that brand international “Mavi” has.She has very much fans, all around the world, because all about kindness, grace, gentleness that she has.She has very beautiful voice too, in series of Medcezir she show too that she has brilliant voice. With her co-partner Cagatay Ulusoy, they have many songs, that all are hits.For example “Isyan”, “Sabret”, “Tek Basina”, “Masum Degiliz” and of cause duets with Cagatay Ulusoy: “Beni Benimle Birak Giderken”, “Dunyayi Durduran”, “Medcezir”, “Bir Kuyruklu Yildiza Mektup”.Even in early age she is one the best actresses that Turkey has, so leaving behind very good actresses that are more old and have more experience,like Beren Saat, Berguzar Korel,Tuba Buyukustun etc.For many people she is considered the future of Turkey. On 2017 she is acting the role of Duru in Fi.


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Cahit Arf İngilizce Hayatı

Cahit Arf ( 1910 – 1997 ) was best known as a mathematician who came up with the “Arf invariant of a quadratic form”. However, he was more than the mathematical problems that he inevitably solved. He was thought of as the greatest Turkish mathematician of the 20th century.

Arf Cahit was born in 1910 in the Selanik part of the Ottoman Empire. His family eventually had to move when the Balkan War of 1912 forced them to consider Istanbul as their home. Cahit would be educated in Izmir where he would go on to receive a scholarship from the Turkish Ministry of Education.

Arf Cahit was a mathematical genius. He was able to study in Paris before returning to Turkey where he taught mathematics at the elite Galatasaray Lisesi. An honor few experience, Arf Cahit would remain there briefly before joining the math program at Istanbul University in 1933.

In 1937, Arf Cahit went to the University of Gottingen where he would be able to secure his Ph.D. He later broadened his horizons by going to the states to work diligently from 1964 until 1966 at the Institute for Advanced Study in Princeton, New Jersey.

Arf Cahit spent a year at Berkeley following his research in Princeton. After he returned to Turkey, he continued to work in research. His continued dedication to mathematics would be profoundly noticed when he joined the Middle East Technical University where he remained until he reached his retirement in 1980.He died on 1997.


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Leonardo Da Vinci İngilizce Hayatı

Leonardo da Vinci was one of the most brilliant men to ever live. He was a musician, inventor, engineer, anatomist, and painter among other things. He is generally regarded as one of the greatest painters in world history.

Da Vinci was born on April 15, 1452, in Vinci, Italy. He was the illegitimate son of a Florentine (from Florence, Italy) notary. Leonardo began school at age five and quickly exhibited uncanny artistic ability. At age 14, Leonardo became an apprentice to painter Andrea del Verrocchio. He was clearly del Verrocchio’s best student, and he quickly developed his own style. He even formulated his own paints. In 1472, Leonardo was accepted into the painter’s guild in Florence. Even so, he remained an apprentice until 1477.

In 1482, Leonardo entered into service for the Duke of Milan. He worked for the duke for 17 years. The duke recognized Leonardo’s immense talents and put him to work painting, sculpting, and designing buildings, machinery, and weapons. From 1485 to 1490, Leonardo’s astonishing works included advanced plans for military weapons such as tanks, war vehicles, and even submarines. He even drew up plans for a helicopter-like machine and a hang glider. Leonardo meticulously kept his notes in various manuscripts and journals. During this time, he also began his landmark studies on human anatomy in which he was given permission to perform human dissections. In 1490, he sketched the famous Vitruvian Man (or Proportions of Man) in one of his journals. In 1498, Leonardo completed the The Last Supper, a biblical scene depicting the final days of Jesus. The Last Supper remains one of the most valuable works in the world. It is located in the convent of the Santa Maria delle Grazie in Milan.

In 1499, Leonardo left the Duke’s service after the Duke fell from power. In 1503, he began working on arguably the most influential and important painting in world history, The Mona Lisa. The painting itself features a woman looking out at the viewer with an “enigmatic smile”.The woman was most likely named Lisa de Gherardini del Giocondo, the wife of a wealthy silk merchant. Incredibly, the smile of Mona Lisa is interpreted differently by different people, and has been the subject of numerous research studies, experiments, and debates. Today, The Mona Lisa can be viewed at The Louvre in Paris, behind glass security panels.

After moving to Milan, Leonardo lived in Rome for three years. In 1516, he was commissioned by King Francis I of France (after France invaded Milan). Leonardo died at the King’s manor house in 1519.


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William Shakespeare İngilizce Hayatı

William Shakespeare was born in Stratford-upon-Avon, England on April 23, 1564. He most likely attended King Edward VI Grammar School in Stratford, where he learned Latin grammar and literature. In 1582, he married 26 year-old Anne Hathaway at the age of 18. In 1583, William’s first child, Susanna was born. In 1585, he had twins, Hamlet and Judith. Between 1589 and 1590, William is believed to have written his first play, Henry VIII. The next year, he completed the second part of the play.

By 1592, William had begun a career as a playwright in London. Two years later, he was an actor and part-owner of a playwright company, Lord Chamberlain’s Men. The company was successful and was adopted by King James I. It was then renamed The King’s Men. By this time, William was well-known throughout the London theater world. In 1594, historians believe he wrote The Taming of the Shrew, a famous comedy in which a character named Petruchio wins a bet for having the most “obedient” wife. The next year, in 1595, William wrote some of his most famous stories including A Midsummer’s Night Dream and Romeo and Juliet. A Midsummer’s Night Dream is a romantic comedy about four lovers and a group of amateur actors, and their interaction with fairies who live in a moonlit forest. Historians believe it was written for a royal wedding. Romeo and Juliet is arguably the most famous love story and tragedy of all time. In 1596, William wrote The Merchant of Venice, a famous comedy in which a Jewish merchant demands “a pound of flesh” when the lead character, Antonio, defaults on a loan.

After writing Julius Caesar in 1599, Shakespeare is thought to have written Hamlet, historically thought of as his greatest masterpiece. To this day Hamlet is probably his most quoted and reproduced tragedy. It is also Shakespeare’s longest play. The plot of the story involves Prince Hamlet, and his attempts to seek revenge on his Uncle Claudius for poisoning his father, King of Denmark, and ascending to the throne.

After Hamlet, Shakespeare wrote several other timeless classics such as Macbeth, Othello, and The Tempest. Many of his plays were performed by his production company at royal courts and at prestigious theaters. Shakespeare died in 1616 at the age of 52.

Today, William Shakespeare is widely regarded as the greatest writer in the history of English language. He is considered one of the few playwrights to have succeeded in writing both comedies and tragedies. He is credited for revolutionizing theater. Before Shakespeare, plays and performances almost always depicted the main character choosing a life of virtue over the temptation of evil. In contrast, the works of Shakespeare were less centered on morality and more concerned with provoking raw emotion and exploring the very meaning of what it meant to be human. Although his plays were not published until after his death, they have now been translated into every major world language, and have been performed continuously in community theaters, high school auditoriums, and major performing venues. Hundreds of “Shakespeare Festivals” exist across the world.


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Pablo Picasso İngilizce Hayatı

Pablo Picasso was born in Málaga, Spain. When he was baptized, he was named after various saints and relatives: Pablo Diego José Francisco de Paula Juan Nepomuceno María de los Remedios Cipriano de la Santísima Trinidad Martyr Patricio Clito Ruíz y Picasso. His father, Jose Ruiz Blasco, was an artist and art professor who gave Pablo art lessons. His mother was Maria Picasso y Lopez. According to his mother, his first word was “piz” when he was trying to say “lápiz,” the Spanish word for pencil.

Picasso was not a good student. He often had to go to detention. Here’s what he said about it. “For being a bad student I was banished to the ‘calaboose’ – a bare cell with whitewashed walls and a bench to sit on. I liked it there, because I took along a sketch pad and drew incessantly … I could have stayed there forever drawing without stopping.”

When he was nine, Picasso finished his first painting, Le picador. It shows a man on a horse at a bullfight. When he started painting, he used a realistic style. He began to experiment with different techniques and styles. When he was 13, he was admitted to the School of Fine Arts in Barcelona, Spain. When he was 16, Picasso’s father and uncle decided to send him to Madrid’s Royal Academy of San Fernando. This was Spain’s top art school. He did not like formal instruction and soon stopped going to classes. He loved Madrid and enjoyed going to The Prado museum to see paintings by famous Spanish painters. He particularly like El Greco’s work.

In 1900, Picasso went to Paris. He met Max Jacob, a journalist and poet. Max helped Picasso learn to speak French. He also met many of the famous artists who lived in Paris. In 1905, American art collectors Leo and Gertrude Stein began to collect his work and helped to make him famous.

He and Georges Braque invented Cubism, a form of painting that featured simple geometric shapes. He is also known for making collages – gluing previously unrelated things together with images. He created oil paintings, sculpture, drawings, stage designs, tapestries, rugs, etchings, collage, and architecture. No other painter or sculptor was as famous while he was still alive. It is estimated that Picasso produced at least 50,000 works of art: 1,885 paintings; 1,228 sculptures; 2,880 ceramics, roughly 12,000 drawings, many thousands of prints, and numerous tapestries and rugs. He also wrote plays and poetry. He became very wealthy.

Some of his famous paintings include: The Old Guitarist; Asleep and Seated Woman, which portray Marie-Therese Walter, one of the women he loved; Guernica, a mural about the Spanish Civil War; and Three Musicians.

Picasso loved many women. He married two of them, Olga Khokhlova and Jacqueline Roque. He had four children: Paulo, Maya, Claude and Paloma, who is famous for her jewelry designs. He died April 8, 1973 in Mougins, France.


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Galileo Galilei İngilizce Hayatı

Galileo was an Italian scientist, astronomer, and physicist. His works and achievements are among the most important in the history of science.

Galileo was born in Pisa, in the Tuscany region of Italy, in 1564. He was the first of six children. He was homeschooled through his early years and later attended the University of Pisa. At Pisa, Galileo first discovered the isochronism (how the time period it takes the pendulum to swing is independent of the arc of its swing) of the pendulum while observing a swinging lamp in the Cathedral of Pisa. This discovery would serve him well fifty years in the future when he developed the astronomical clock. Galileo soon became bored with his studies and eventually dropped out of the university. Nevertheless, he was offered a position as a mathematics professor there in 1589 after lecturing about the approximate size of Lucifer (from Dante’s Inferno) was about 2,000 arm lengths long, based on the author’s comparison of the demon to the “cone” of St. Peter in Rome.

While teaching at Pisa, Galileo conducted a legendary experiment in which he challenged Aristotle’s law that states that heavier objects fall at a faster rate than lighter objects. According to legend, Galileo went to the top of the Tower of Pisa and dropped various balls of different material, size, and weight from the top. When they all hit the ground at the same time, Galileo had proven Aristotle wrong. Galileo failed to publish his results, and because he was disliked by his colleagues, the University of Pisa failed to renew his contract as professor.

Galileo then joined the faculty at the University of Padua and taught geometry, mechanics, and astronomy. It was at Padua where he made many of his amazing discoveries. In 1596, Galileo invented a military compass that could be used to properly aim cannonballs. In 1609, he gained word that a Dutch spectacle-maker had invented a device called a spyglass. The spyglass (later called a telescope) made distant objects appear much closer. Before the Dutch inventor could secure a patent, Galileo quickly constructed his own 3-power telescope, and then a 10-power telescope to present to the senate in Venice. Galileo then used his telescope to document the surface of the moon, which he described as bumpy, cratered, and uneven. Galileo next created a 30-power telescope and observed Jupiter and three of its moons that seemed to rotate around the giant planet. Based on these observations, Galileo wrote a short book called The Starry Messenger in which he upheld the Copernican theory that the Earth and solar system rotated around the sun. The book caused quite a stir among powerful members of the Catholic Church, who believed the solar system rotated around the earth. Galileo was subsequently prohibited from teaching the Copernican theory.

Galileo soon began taking up other scientific interests. In one particular paper he published, Galileo explained theories on ocean tides by using three characters engaging in a “dialogue.” One character supported Galileo’s views, another character was open-minded, and the last was stubborn and foolish and represented Galileo’s enemies. He then wrote a similar book about the Copernican theory. Although the “dialogues” were very popular with the Italian public, the Pope believed that he was the model for the stubborn and foolish enemy of Galileo. The Pope ordered all of the “dialogues” banned and demanded that Galileo be tried for teaching the Copernican theory. Galileo was sentenced to house arrest and forced to confess that his views were flawed. He died in Florence in 1642.


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Albert Einstein İngilizce Hayatı

Albert Einstein was born in Ulm, Germany, on March 14, 1879. He had a speech problem and often paused to think about what to say next. Einstein wrote about two events he thought were important in his childhood. He remembered how he marveled at the invisible forces that turned the needle of a compass when he was five and a geometry book that he found when he was twelve. He read the book over and over. He enjoyed classical music and played the violin.

Einstein renounced his German citizenship to avoid military service and enrolled at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic School in Zürich, Switzerland. Because he liked to study on his own, he cut classes, which made some of his professors angry. Heinrich Weber wrote a letter of “recommendation” that led to Einstein being turned down for every teaching job he applied for after graduation. In 1902, the father of a friend recommended him for a job as a clerk in the Swiss patent office in Bern, Switzerland.

In 1905, Einstein obtained his doctorate degree and published four papers describing his research, including the Special Theory of Relativity. This theory has his famous equation e = mc2, which means that when matter is converted to energy, the amount of energy is equal to the mass of an object times the square of the speed of light in a vacuum. It also means that the speed of light is fixed and independent of the observer’s motion. In 1921, he won the Nobel Prize for physics for his explanation of the photoelectric effect.

Einstein moved to Princeton, New Jersey, in 1933 to become a professor at the Institute for Advanced Study. In 1939, World War II broke out. Einstein was afraid that Germany was working on atomic bombs and wrote to President Franklin D. Roosevelt to explain his position. Although Einstein never actually worked on an American atomic bomb, his theories helped to make its construction possible. After the war, Einstein worked with others who wanted to see nuclear weapons abolished. From 1901 to 1954, Albert Einstein published more than 300 scientific works. In later years, he worked on a new theory, the Unified Field Theory. Scientists recently discovered a new particle using the Large Hadron Collider, which may help prove his theory.


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Thomas Edison İngilizce Hayatı

Thomas Edison was born February 11, 1847, in Milan, Ohio. He was nicknamed “Al” at an early age. At age 11, Edison moved to Michigan where he spent the remainder of his childhood.

Thomas Edison struggled in school but learned to love reading and conducting experiments from his mother who taught him at home. At age 15, Edison became a “tramp telegrapher,” sending and receiving messages via Morse code, an electronically conveyed alphabet using different clicks for each letter. Eventually, he worked for the Union Army as a telegrapher. Edison often entertained himself by taking things apart to see how they worked. Soon, he decided to become an inventor.

In 1870, Edison moved to New York City and improved the stock ticker. He soon formed his own company that manufactured the new stock tickers. He also began working on the telegraph and invented a version that could send four messages at once. Meanwhile, Edison married Mary Stillwell, had three children, and moved his family to Menlo Park, New Jersey, where he started his famous laboratory.

In 1877, Edison, with help from “muckers,” individuals from around the world looking to make fortunes in America, invented the phonograph. The phonograph was a machine that recorded and played back sounds. He perfected the phonograph by recording “Mary Had a Little Lamb” on a piece of tin foil! In 1878, Edison invented the light bulb as well as the power grid system, which could generate electricity and deliver it to homes through a network of wires. He subsequently started the Edison Electric Light Company in October of 1878.

In 1884, after he attained great fame and fortune, Mary Stillwell died. Edison remarried 20-year-old Mina Miller in 1886. He had three more children and moved to West Orange, New Jersey. At West Orange, Edison built one of the largest laboratories in the world. He worked extremely hard and registered 1,093 patents. Edison continued to invent or improve products and make significant contributions to X-ray technology, storage batteries, and motion pictures (movies). He also invented the world’s first talking doll. His inventions changed the world forever. They still influence the way we live today. Edison worked until his death on October 18, 1931.


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Çağatay Ulusoy İngilizce Hayatı

Cagatay Ulusoy was born on 23 September, 1990 in Istanbul, Turkey. After graduation from high school, he continued studying at the University of Istanbul. He’d been working as a model since 2009 when he won the competition Best Model of Turkey 2010. The first major project was the TV series ‘Adini Feriha Koydum’ (I Named her Feriha), where he portrayed the character of Emir Sarrafoglu. But his first step to the big screen was in the film ‘Anadolu Kartallari’ (Anatolian Eagles), where he portrayed the character of Ahmet Onur. After the success of Adini Feriha Koydum, he made a contract with ayyapim for remake of the OC. His character, Yaman Koper, became phenomenon among teenagers (especially for the way he speaks and with his original hair style). And he had the opportunity to show how great singer he is with his solos and duets.. While shooting season 2 of medcezir, he started to learn how to play drum for his new role on Delibal. Baris Ayaz ,who is an architect student suffering from an illness, falls in love at first sight and things happen.. Cagatay describes his new role as a big step for his acting career. Delibal is scheduled to be released on December, 2015.

He enjoys fishing, playing basketball, drawing, painting, singing, playing guitar, drum and piano. He likes keeping his private life private.


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Cem Yılmaz İngilizce Hayatı

Cem Yılmaz was born on April 23, 1973 in Istanbul, Turkey. While studying at the Department of Tourism and Hotel Management of Bogazici University, he started drawing comics for the Turkish humor magazine Leman. In August 1995 he did his first stand-up comedy show in “Leman Culture Center” performing with no serious career intentions as a comedian. However, after the positive response of the audience, he continued his show to attract larger crowds in Besiktas Cultural Center where he has appeared in over a thousand stand-up comedy shows since, becoming so popular that tickets have sold for 250TL.

His movie career started in 1998 with a co-starring role in the comedy Her Sey Çok Güzel Olacak (1998), directed by Ömer Vargi, and continued with a role in Vizontele (2001), directed by Yilmaz Erdogan and Ömer Faruk Sorak. He achieved his greatest success by starring in and writing big-budget science-fiction parody G.O.R.A. (2004), also directed by Ömer Faruk Sorak, which despite spending several years in production because of financial and other technical problems became a box-office hit and described by Rekin Teksoy as a strong sign that showed that popular cinema was successful in appealing to wide audiences. He maintained this success with a starring role in the comedy feature movie Organize Isler (2005) AKA ‘Magic Carpet Ride’, also directed by Yilmaz Erdogan, for which he won Best Supporting Actor at the 11th Sadri Alisik Awards, and his directorial debut with Hokkabaz (2006), co-directed by Ali Taner Baltaci, for which he won Best Actor at the 34th Brussels International Independent Film Festival and 12th Sadri Alisik Awards. He has since repeated his box office success with a sequel to G.O.R.A. (2004) called A.R.O.G (2008), also co-directed by Ali Taner Baltaci, and comedy Western parody called Yahsi Bati (2009), directed by Ömer Faruk Sorak. That same year, he co-starred, alongside veteran actor Sener Sen, in the police drama Av Mevsimi (2010), written and directed by Yavuz Turgul, and made a special appearance in drama Zefir (2010), written and directed by Belma Bas. After two years he also acted in Ferzan Ozpetek’s Sahane Misafir (2012). After he filmed his last stand-up comedy show CM101MMXI Fundamentals (2013) directed by Murat Dundar, he announced that for the next few years he will stop his stand-up comedy shows to have a rest.

Along his professional career, he has won numerous awards and appeared in more than 4000 stand-up comedy shows, took part in 10 movies and contributed as a dubbing performer in 4 movies.


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Isaac Newton İngilizce Hayatı

Sir Isaac Newton Kimdir

Sir Isaac Newton was born in the county of Lincolnshire, England in 1643. His father died just months before he was born, and when he was three years old, his mother left him in the care of his grandmother. Isaac was always a top student, and went off to the University of Cambridge at age 19. While at Cambridge, Newton was influenced by the writings of Galileo, Nicholas Copernicus, and Johannes Kepler. By 1665, Newton began developing a mathematical theory that would lead to the development of calculus, one of the fundamental branches of mathematics. Newton would go on to discover other important math theories such as Newton’s Identities, and Newton’s Method.

In 1670, Newton moved on to the study of optics and developed theories relating to the composition of white light and the spectrum of colors. In one of his famous experiments, he refracted white light with a prism, resolving it into its constituent colors: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, and violet. As a result of his experiments, he developed Newton’s Theory of Color, which claimed that objects appear certain colors because they absorb and reflect different amounts of light. Newton was the first scientist to maintain that color was determined solely by light, and his findings created much controversy. Most scientists thought that prisms colored light. Nevertheless, Newton then created the world’s first color wheel, which arranged different colors around the circumference of a circle. He is also credited as the first scientist to explain the formation of a rainbow – from water droplets dispersed in the atmosphere. In 1679, Newton continued his work on gravitation and its effects on the planets. In 1687, he published Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica. In this landmark work, Newton explained his three laws of motion, which included his theory on gravity. According to Newton, gravity is the reason that objects fall to the ground when dropped. Moreover, gravity is the reason why planets orbit the sun, while moons orbit planets, and why ocean tides exist. Newton’s theories remain among the most important concepts in the history of science. There is some evidence that Newton’s ideas concerning gravity were inspired by apples falling from trees. There is no evidence to suggest, however, that any of the apples hit him in the head (as cartoons and fables suggest). Below are Newton’s three laws of motion: Newton’s First Law ( Law of Inertia) states that an object at rest tends to stay at rest and that an object in uniform motion tends to stay in uniform motion unless acted upon by an external force.Newton’s Second Law states that an applied force on an object equals the time rate of change of its momentum. Newton’s Third Law states that for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

Following the publication of his work, Newton became instantly famous throughout Europe. In the later years of his life he wrote several articles on interpretation of the bible. He was also appointed a member of the British Parliament and spent many years reforming the Royal Mint (coin making agency of Parliament). He died on March 20, 1727.


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Kıvanç Tatlıtuğ İngilizce Hayatı

Kıvanç Tatlıtuğ was born on October 27, 1983 in Adana, Turkey. His professional career started with modeling in 2002. After his modeling career, with the TV Series “Gumus” he has started his acting career and he acted the leading role “Mehmet”. “Gumus” was the first Turkish TV Series which was sold to Middle East and Kivanc Tatlitug has invited to many Film Festivals like Abu Dhabi, Cairo, Muscat as a Guest of Honor and won Honor Rewards. Kivanc Tatlitug is the most well-known and popular Turkish actor in the Middle East, Balkans, North Africa and Turkic Republics since 2005. After “Gumus” he continued his acting career in the order of “Menekse ile Halil” as Halil, “Ask-i Memnu” as “Behlul”, “Ezel” as a guest star “Sekiz” and finally with “Kuzey Guney” as Kuzey. Nowadays he is shooting his new TV Series “Kurt Seyit ve Sura” and acting as “Kurt Seyit”.

In 2007 he acted as “Muzaffer” character in “Amerikalilar Karadenizde” Movie and in 2013 he acted as “Muzaffer Tayyip Uslu” character in “Kelebegin Ruyasi – Butterfly’s Dream” Movie.

In addition to Golden Butterfly TV Awards 2012 “Best Actor”, Sadri Alisik Theatre and Cinema Awards 2013 “Best Actor”, he has also won “Best Actor” awards from many Universities, Educational and Public Institutions. He finally won “Best Actor” award from SIYAD 2013 (Turkish Film Critics Association) with his role in the movie “Kelebegin Ruyasi – Butterfly’s Dream”.

Kivanc Tatlitug is also the youngest Unicef Goodwill Ambassador in the world and continues his working for children


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Kerem Bursin İngilizce Hayatı

Kerem Bursin was born on June 4th, 1987, in Istanbul, Turkey. Bursin spent his childhood on the move and was raised internationally living in 7 different countries. After years of living an expat life him and his family settled in Sugar Land, Texas. While in high school in Texas, he developed an interest in acting. In a play he did his senior year he was recognized and won many awards including the best actor of the state of Texas. Bursin later attended Emerson College in Boston, where he majored in Marketing Communications with a focus on Public Relations. However constantly taking roles acting in numerous student films and plays, he gained attention on campus as an actor. He began to focus his studies on acting and finished his last semester of College in Los Angeles, which led him to stay there.

Bursin’s first role on television, was Roger Corman’s Sharktopus (2010) then again in 2012 starred in another one of Corman’s pictures; Palace of the Damned (2013). After spending a few years in Los Angeles, Bursin decided to move temporarily to his home town Istanbul, Turkey. Shortly after his move he started to pursue his ambition in acting again. After a couple of months his career in Turkey would take off, landing the lead role in director Altan Donmez and D-Production’s tv show ‘Gunesi Beklerken/Waiting for the Sun’ (2013-2014) which would become a hit phenomenon in Turkey as well as surrounding countries. The Turkish audience would meet Bursin for the first time at his portrayal of Kerem Sayer, an 18 year old high school rebel. In a short amount of time Bursin won the crowd over, the role landing him several awards, commercial deals and recognition throughout regions across Eastern Europe, Turkey and the Middle East.

After shooting 56 episodes and calling it a series finale for ‘Gunesi Beklerken/Waiting for the Sun’ (2013-2014), Bursin soon was approached by one of Turkey’s famous and important directors Cagan Irmak to be in his film ‘Unutursam Fisilda/Whisper If I Forget’ (2014) which Bursin would accept the role, Erhan, a young bass player with a passion for music taking place in 70’s Istanbul. Bursin’s small but pivotal role in the film gained him more recognition and awards.

Continuing his career climb Bursin was offered to be the face of Turkey most popular denim brand MAVI which he currently still is.

For his next season on TV, Bursin and director Altan Donmez re-joined the producers at D-Porductions for a different kind of show, one that would spring a lot of curiosity and hype, the Turkish remake of the famous Italian mafia TV-Series Il Ristretto D’Honore. ‘Seref Meselesi/Matter of Respect’ (2014-2015) had a lot of critics skeptical whether or not Bursin would be able to pull off the role of a late twenties Turkish bad boy who would get sucked into the life of the Turkish mafia where revenge would drive him to reach the top of the mafia tree. Leaving critics surprised and again gaining the appreciation of the audience the show became a hit.


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Türkan Şoray İngilizce Hayatı

Türkan Soray was born on June 28, 1945 in Istanbul, Turkey. Türkan Soray is one of four big female stars of the old Turkish cinema.

Türkan was born to a railway-officer father and a housewife mother. She started in Turkish cinema at the age of 15, when she accompanied to her friend, neighbor Emel Yildiz (also known as Panther Emel due to her sensitivity for animal rights) while going to a film set. There, she was discovered by Turker Inanoglu and the leading actress role was taken from Emel and given to her in that film, Köyde bir kiz sevdim (1960). After that her career had developed steadily and she had become the most desired women in movies due to her beauty and talent at 1960s. Even, since her movies having similar plots was shown in cinemas, her movies made some losses. Due to the high interest of the producers, she could forced some principles, frequently mentioned as “The rules of Turkan Soray”, to the producers. These laws consisted of some constraints about place, non-nudity, working hours, some penalties in violations and so on. These rules couldn’t been opposed by the producers because of her popularity and box offices of her movies. She had many national and international nomination and awards and was chosen to be a “Artist of State” by Ministry of Culture of Turkey Republic.

In 1990s, she made some works for TV. Especially, Ikinci Bahar and Tatli Hayat TV series could be assumed to be one of the best series in their kinds at their times. She has been making a biographical cinema program, Sinema Benim Askim(Cinema is My Love) for NTV channel.

On 12 March 2010, she was chosen to be a goodwill ambassador by UNESCO.

In her personal life, she had shared her life with Ruchan Adli in early times of her career. Mr. Adli helped and advised her in her career development. They didn’t marry but separated after 20 years. In 1983, she married Cihan Unal, but they divorced in 1987. They have a daughter called Yagmur.


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Hezarfen Ahmet Çelebi İngilizce Hayatı

Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi (1609-1640), an inhabitant of Istanbul in the 17th century Ottoman Empire is credited with the first appropriate flight with artificial wings in the history of aviation. The event took place in the year 1638 during the tenure of Sultan Murad IV. Hezarfen took off from the 183-foot tall Galata Tower near Bosporus and landed successfully at Uskudar, on the other side.

This feat was 200 years ahead of its time. Evliya Celebi, historian and chronicler and an eyewitness, recorded vividly in his Seyahatname (a book of travel), the jubilation that followed. Sultan Murad IV was inordinately pleased. Hezarfen was awarded a thousand gold pieces.

He was bound for greater glory when religious intolerance and political asininity cut him down. Palace advisors and religious heads forced Sultan Murad to do otherwise. Hezarfen was exiled to Algeria. (In this irony of fate, he had another illustrious contemporary as company. Galileo had been sentenced for life and put under house arrest in 1633 for unmitigated brilliance that religion and politics found hard to digest.) After two years Hezarfen died. He was thirty-one.

Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi is an unforgettable name. His trials and tribulations have the shadow of genius. Hezarfen airstrip-one of the three airports in Istanbul-is a reminder that dreams do not die.

Man First Flew Successfully In 1638; Not In 1903

Hezarfen Ahmet Celebi had been experimenting with glider flights for sometimes. (Gliders are aerodynamic wings attached to a frame to which the pilot clings onto. In practice gliders are engineless airplanes. Large gliders with fuselages as large the ones in conventional aircraft were used during World War II to land airborne troops). He kept his faith in man’s ability to fly and tried several designs of wings. Despite peoples’ ridicules, he kept his attempts alive. One day in the year 1638, in front of the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire Murat IV and a huge crowd of onlookers, he succeeded in flying. He flew from the gigantic Galata Tower in one shore of the Bosphorous straight (On the European of Istanbul) to the other shore on the other side of Istanbul, the distance being 1.5 Km. He had a successful landing, which makes it to be the first-ever controlled, sustained and successful flight by a human being.


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Jack London İngilizce Hayatı

DATE OF BIRTH: January 12, 1876
DATE OF DEATH: November 22, 1916
CITY OF BIRTH: San Francisco
COUNTRY OF BIRTH: United States of America

Jack London’s life was as rugged and adventurous as the tales he told. Born in San Francisco on January 12, 1876, he grew up in and around the docks of San Francisco and Oakland, California. At 13 he left school to help support his family. But normal occupations did not appeal to him, and he joined a gang of men who illegally caught oysters at night and sold them the next morning. At only 15 years of age, Jack London was one of the most successful oyster pirates working San Francisco Bay.

London maintained a strong love for books while he practiced his pirate trade. In fact, his continuous reading was often compared to his hard drinking — he did both with equal zest. London moved from place to place and from job to job. He hunted seals in the Pacific, worked in a jute mill, and went prospecting for gold in Alaska. London was an active socialist and joined a march to Washington, D.C., in 1894 to voice demands for social and economic justice. But his own words sum up his attitude: “I became a tramp … because of the life that was in me, of a wanderlust in my blood which would not let me rest.”

London began writing down his adventures, and in 1893 he won a newspaper short-story contest. This success encouraged him to write more. His early works were rejected by publishers, but a series of stories based on his experiences in the Far North met with greater success. Between 1900 and 1916, he became the most widely read author of his time. Most of London’s stories are about the struggle for survival that he knew well. His short stories of the Klondike, such as “To Build A Fire,” drew on his own experiences there. The autobiographical novel Martin Eden (1909) tells of the time he first began to write. And anyone who reads his novels The Sea Wolf (1901), The Call of the Wild (1903), and White Fang (1906) will come to know the life and personality of Jack London.

Unfortunately, London’s life came to a tragic end. Ill and burdened by debts, unable to help people to whom he had often given money and shelter, he took an overdose of drugs. He died on November 22, 1916.


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Jane Austen İngilizce Hayatı

Jane Austen (16 December 1775 – 18 July 1817) was an English novelist. She wrote many books of romantic fiction about the gentry. Her works made her one of the most famous and beloved writers in English literature. She is one of the great masters of the English novel.

Austen’s works criticized sentimental novels in the late 18th century, and are part of the change to nineteenth-century realism. She wrote about typical people in everyday life. This gave the English novel its first distinctly modern character. Austen’s stories are often comic, but they also show how women depended on marriage for social standing and economic security. Her works are also about moral problems.

Jane Austen was born on 16 December 1775 at Steventon, near Basingstoke. Educated mostly by her father and older brothers, and also by her own reading, she lived with her family at Steventon. They moved to Bath when her father retired in 1801. After he died in 1805, she moved around with her mother. In 1809, they settled in Chawton, near Alton, Hampshire. In May 1817 she moved to Winchester to be near her doctor. She died there on 18 July 1817.

Jane Austen was very modest about her own genius. She once famously described her work as “the little bit (two Inches wide) of Ivory, on which I work with so fine a brush, as produces little effect after much labor”. When she was a girl she wrote stories. Her works were printed only after much revision. Only four of her novels were printed while she was alive. They were Sense and Sensibility (1811), Pride and Prejudice (1813), Mansfield Park (1814) and Emma (1816). Two other novels, Northanger Abbey and Persuasion, were printed in 1817 with a biographical notice by her brother, Henry Austen. Persuasion was written shortly before her death. She also wrote two earlier works, Lady Susan, and an unfinished novel, The Watsons. She had been working on a new novel, Sanditon, but she died before she could finish it.


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Orhan Pamuk İngilizce Hayatı

Pamuk was born in Istanbul in 1952 and grew up in a wealthy yet declining bourgeois family; an experience he describes in passing in his novels The Black Book and Cevdet Bey and His Sons, as well as more thoroughly in his personal memoir Istanbul. He was educated at Robert College secondary school in Istanbul and went on to study architecture at the Istanbul Technical University since it was related to his real dream career, painting. He left the architecture school after three years, however, to become a full-time writer, and graduated from the Institute of Journalism at the University of Istanbul in 1976. From ages 22 to 30, Pamuk lived with his mother, writing his first novel and attempting to find a publisher. He is a Muslim, and he describes himself as a cultural one who associates the historical and cultural identification with the religion.

On 1 March 1982, Pamuk married Aylin Türegün, a historian. From 1985 to 1988, while his wife was a graduate student at Columbia University, Pamuk assumed the position of visiting scholar there, using the time to conduct research and write his novel The Black Book in the university’s Butler Library. This period also included a visiting fellowship at the University of Iowa.

Pamuk returned to Istanbul, a city to which he is strongly attached. He and his wife had a daughter named Ruya born in 1991, whose name means “dream” in Turkish. In 2001, he and Aylin were divorced.

In 2006, Pamuk returned to the US to take up a position as a visiting professor at Columbia. Pamuk is currently a Fellow with Columbia’s Committee on Global Thought and holds an appointment in Columbia’s Middle East and Asian Languages and Cultures department and at its School of the Arts.

In May 2007, Pamuk was among the jury members at the Cannes Film Festival headed by British director Stephen Frears. In the 2007-2008 academic year Pamuk returned to Columbia once again to jointly teach comparative literature classes with Andreas Huyssen and David Damrosch.

Pamuk was also a writer-in-residence at Bard College. He completed his latest novel, Masumiyet Müzesi (The Museum of Innocence) in the summer of 2008 and the book was released in Turkey on the 29th of August. The German translation will appear shortly before the 2008 Frankfurt Book Fair where Pamuk was planning to hold an actual Museum of Innocence consisting of everyday odds and ends the writer has amassed (the exhibition will instead occur in an Istanbul house purchased by Pamuk). Plans for an English translation have not been made public, but Erdag Goknar received a 2004 NEA grant for the project. His elder brother Sevket Pamuk – who sometimes appears as a fictional character in Orhan Pamuk’s work — is a professor of economics, internationally recognized for his work in history of economics of the Ottoman Empire, working at Bogazici University in Istanbul. In autumn 2009, Pamuk was Harvard’s Charles Eliot Norton Lecturer, delivering a series of lectures entitled “The Naive and Sentimental Novelist”.

Nobel Prize

On 12 October 2006, the Swedish Academy announced that Orhan Pamuk had been awarded the 2006 Nobel Prize in literature, confounding pundits and oddsmakers who had made Syrian poet Ali Ahmad Said, known as Adonis, a favorite. Many Turkish people believe that his being awarded the Nobel Prize was politically motivated.


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I. Abdülhamit İngilizce Hayatı

ABDULHAMID I (1725-1789), was a sultan of Turkey. The son of Ahmed III, he was born on March 20, 1725, and succeeded his brother, Mustafa III, on Jan. 21, 1774. The chief events of his reign were two wars with Russia, both of which were disastrous for Turkey.
I. Abdülhamit
When Abdulhamid acceded to the throne, Turkey was involved in a war with Russia that had begun in 1768. During the first year of his reign, Turkey suifered two devastating defeats by Russian troops and was forced to agree to the humiliating Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji, by which Russia acquired large areas of land from Turkey and gained navigational rights on the Black Sea and through the Straits to the Mediterranean. Another important provision of the treaty set up the Crimea as an independent state.

Turkey was further humiliated in 1775, when Austria, taking advantage of Turkey’s weakness, seized the province of Bukovina, and Persia invaded Kurdistan, touching off another war. Ottoman forces sent to Baghdad were badly defeated, and Basra fell to the Persians in 1776.

Another war with Russia began in 1787, when Empress Catherine II of Russia annexed the Crimea and planned to set up an independent government in Greece, then part of the Ottoman empire. Abdulhamid died on April 7, 1789, after receiving news of a severe defeat of his forces by the Russians.


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II. Abdülhamit İngilizce Hayatı

II. AbdülhamitABDULHAMID II (1842-1918)
, was the 34th ruler of the Ottoman empire. The son of Abdul-Medjid I and Tirimujgan, a Circassian, he was born on Sept. 21, 1842. He came to the throne during one of the most critical periods in the later history of the empire. The Tanzimat (reorganization) reform edicts, proclaimed first in 1839 and expanded in 1856, had prepared the ground for constitutional change and liberalization of the state. A group of ministers, including the constitutionalist Midhat Pasha, deposed Abdul-Aziz in May 1876 and placed his nephew Murad V on the throne. Murad’s deranged mind necessitated his removal from the throne. Abdul-Hamid had declared himself in favor of constitutional government, and the fact that he had been associated with the liberal Society of New Ottomans won the confidence of the liberals, who placed him on the throne on Sept. 1, 1876.

Repression. To fulfill guarantees he had made before his accession, Abdul-Hamid proclaimed the first Ottoman constitution on Dec. 23, 1876. The constitution provided for a bicameral parliament, which met for the first time on March 17, 1877. It survived less than a year; Abdul-Hamid used a disastrous war with Russia as a pretext for closing it on Feb. 13, 1878.

The Treaty of Berlin (July 13, 1878), which ended the Russo-Turkish War, reduced Ottoman territory and led to increased national agitation among the sultan’s non-Muslim subjects. Abdul-Hamid spent the next few years consolidating his position. In 1881, Midhat Pasha and several of his supporters were tried for the alleged murder of Abdul-Aziz. Midhat was convicted and banished to Arabia, where he was murdered in 1883, apparently on the sultan’s orders. His disappearance reduced the activities of the sultan’s foes. Many took refuge in Europe or went underground, keeping alive the desire to return to constitutional government. Both the inability of the liberals to agree on a course of action and the efficiency of Abdul-Hamid’s secret poliçe allowed him to stay in power.

Reform. Despite his bitter hostility to constitutional and liberal ideas, Abdul-Hamid accepted some Westernization and reform in certain areas. Many administrative, legal, and educational reforms begun in earlier reigns were continued and actually speeded up during his reign. His greatest achievements were in education. He increased the number of secular schöols training badly needed technicians and civil servants, and he established the University of istanbul (1900).

Although he was less successful in reforming the empire’s legal and fiscal systems, Abdul-Hamid effected great advances in communications as part of his attempt to centralize power in his own hands. He personally presided over the improvement and expansion of rail and telegraph services. In 1888, Hungary was linked with istanbul and Ankara as part of the Baghdad Railroad project. In keeping with his pan-Islamic policy of uniting ali Muslims around himself as caliph, Abdul-Hamid also sponsored the Hejaz Railway to the holy places in Arabia. The railway was built by popular subscription. The press, although greatly restricted by state censorship, developed swiftly and contributed significantly to the literacy and political awareness of the public. At the same time the output of books was almost doubled, chiefly in the fîelds of literatüre and education.

Rebellion. Meanwhile, dissatisfaction with Abdul-Hamid’s rule continued to grow. Westerners called him “Abdul the Damned” and “Bloody Abdul.” The Young Turk movement, an outgrowth of the earlier Society of New Ottomans, hoped to reinstate the constitution of 1876. Although hampered in their activities by factional dissensions and official repression, the Young Turks achieved some degree of unity when they succeeded in organizing the Committee of Union and Progress in 1907. Finally, on July 24, 1908, a revolt precipitated by the fear that the empire would lose more European provinces through the machinations of the great powers forced Abdul-Hamid to restore the suspended constitution of 1876. He remained on the throne but was suspected of intriguing with reactionary elements that staged an unsuccessful counterrevolution. This led to his deposition on April 28, 1909. The last of the strong sultans, he died in istanbul on Feb. 10, 1918.


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Abdülmecit Han İngilizce Hayatı

AbdülmecitABDULMEJID I (1823-1861), was a Turkish sultan of the Ottoman Empire. Born on April 25, 1823, he succeeded his father, Mahmud II, as sultan on July 1, 1839. He was a liberal, refined, and humane ruler who was very receptive to Western ideas, but he lacked the strength necessary to put into effect the reforms he so earnestly desired. He died on June 25, 1861, leaving the empire in the throes of a financial crisis brought about largely by his unsound fiscal policies.

Abdul-Mejid (or Abdul-Medjid) came to the throne when the Ottoman armies had just suffered a humiliating defeat at the hands of Mohammed Ali, the rebellious governor of Egypt. To gain the support of the European powers, Abdul-Mejid promulgated on Nov. 3, 1839, the Hatt-i Sherif of Gülhane (Noble Rescript of the Rose Chamber). This document ended the internal war and inaugurated the era of the Tanzimat (Reorganization) reform.

Abdul-Mejid hoped, through rescripts, to continue the reforms begun by his father and to demonstrate to the Europeans that the Turks were capable of instituting a modern liberal state. A clause designed to reassure the European powers, who were concerned about the empire’s non-Muslim population, promised to guarantee the liberty, life, and property of all subjects of the sultan. The decree also provided for modernization of the state with a view to regularizing recruitment into the armed forces, collection of taxes, and the judicial processes. Edicts implementing these innovations were issued, but only a few bore lasting results.


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Elvis Presley İngilizce Hayatı

Elvis Presley

The incredible Elvis Presley life story began when Elvis Aaron Presley was born to Vernon and Gladys Presley in a two-room house in Tupelo, Mississippi, on January 8, 1935. His twin brother, Jessie Garon, was stillborn, leaving Elvis to grow up as an only child. He and his parents moved to Memphis, Tennessee, in 1948, and Elvis graduated from Humes High School there in 1953.

Elvis’ musical influences were the pop and country music of the time, the gospel music he heard in church and at the all-night gospel sings he frequently attended, and the black R&B he absorbed on historic Beale Street as a Memphis teenager.

In 1954, Elvis began his singing career with the legendary Sun Records label in Memphis. In late 1955, his recording contract was sold to RCA Victor. By 1956, he was an international sensation. With a sound and style that uniquely combined his diverse musical influences and blurred and challenged the social and racial barriers of the time, he ushered in a whole new era of American music and popular culture.

Here are a few Elvis Presley facts: he starred in 33 successful films, made history with his television appearances and specials, and knew great acclaim through his many, often record-breaking, live concert performances on tour and in Las Vegas. Globally, he has sold over one billion records, more than any other artist. His American sales have earned him gold, platinum or multi-platinum awards. Among his many achievements were 14 Grammy nominations (3 wins) from the National Academy of Recording Arts & Sciences, the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award which he received at age 36, and his being named One of the Ten Outstanding Young Men of the Nation for 1970 by the United States Jaycees. Without any of the special privileges, his celebrity status might have afforded him, Elvis honorably served his country in the U.S. Army.

His talent, good looks, sensuality, charisma, and good humor endeared him to millions, as did the humility and human kindness he demonstrated throughout his life. Known the world over by his first name, he is regarded as one of the most important figures of twentieth century popular culture. Elvis died at his Memphis home, Graceland, on August 16, 1977. He was 42.


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Ada Lovelace İngilizce Hayatı

Ada Lovelace, in full Ada King, countess of Lovelace, original name Augusta Ada Byron, Lady Byron, (born December 10, 1815, Piccadilly Terrace, Middlesex [now in London], England – died November 27, 1852, Marylebone, London) , English mathematician, an associate of Charles Babbage, for whose prototype of a digital computer she created a program. She has been called the first computer programmer.

Lovelace was the daughter of famed poet Lord Byron and Annabella Milbanke Byron, who legally separated two months after her birth. Her father then left Britain forever, and his daughter never knew him personally. She was educated privately by tutors and then self educated but was helped in her advanced studies by mathematician-logician Augustus De Morgan, the first professor of mathematics at the University of London. On July 8, 1835, she married William King, 8th Baron King, and, when he was created an earl in 1838, she became countess of Lovelace.

Lovelace became interested in Babbage’s machines as early as 1833 and, most notably, in 1843 came to translate and annotate an article written by the Italian mathematician and engineer Luigi Federico Menabrea, Notions sur la machine analytique de Charles Babbage (1842; Elements of Charles Babbage’s Analytical Machine). Her detailed and elaborate annotations (especially her description of how the proposed Analytical Engine could be programmed to compute Bernoulli numbers) were excellent; “the Analytical Engine,” she said, “weaves algebraic patterns, just as the Jacquard-loom weaves flowers and leaves.”

Babbage only built a small part of the Analytical Engine, but Lovelace’s efforts have been remembered. The early programming language Ada was named for her, and the second Tuesday in October has become Ada Lovelace Day, on which the contributions of women to science, technology, engineering, and mathematics are honoured.


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